Interpersonal Communications

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Author:
cbgarrison
ID:
206004
Filename:
Interpersonal Communications
Updated:
2013-03-09 22:08:39
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Speech Communication
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Description:
The process of interpersonal communication - Chapters 1 - 4
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  1. Parts of the communication process
    • 1.Sender
    • 2. Message
    • 3. Receiver
    • 4. Channel
    • 5. Noise
    • 6. Environment
  2. Why we communicate
    To satisfy:

    • 1. Physical needs
    • 2. Identity needs
    • 3.Social needs
    • 4. Practical needs
  3. Any interaction between two people
    Quantitative (interpersonal communication)
  4. Two persons interacting
    Dyad
  5. When people treat one another as unique individuals, regardless of the context in which the interaction occurs or the number of people involved
    Qualitative (interpersonal communication)
  6. Features of qualitative communication
    • 1. Uniqueness
    • 2. Irreplaceability
    • 3. Interdependence
    • 4. Disclosure
    • 5. Intrinsic rewards
  7. When communication is both effective and appropriate, it is a result of...
    Communication Competence
  8. Characteristics of competent communication
    • 1. Large repertoire of skills
    • 2. Adaptability
    • 3. Ability to perform skillfully
    • 4. Involvement
    • 5. Empathy/Perspective taking
    • 6. Cognitive complexity
    • 7. Self Monitoring
  9. Two distinct ways that members of various cultures deliver messages.

    Identified by Anthroplogist Edward Hall
    High or Low Context
  10. Uses language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as directly as possible.

    Self expression is valued.

    Clear, eloquent speech is praiseworthy.

    Verbal fluency is admired.
    Low Context
  11. Relies heavily on subtle, non-verbal cues to maintain social harmony.

    Relational harmony is valued by the indirect expression of options.

    Communicators abstain from saying "no" directly.

    Communicators talk around the point.

    Ambiguity and use of silence is admired
    High Context
  12. View their primary responsibilities as helping themselves.
    Individualistic Culture
  13. Feel loyalties and obligations to an in-group.

    (i.e. extended family, community, organization)
    Collectivistic
  14. The degree to which members of a society accept an unequal distribution of power.
    Power Distance
  15. Believe in minimizing distinctions between various social classes.

    One person is as good as another.

    Challenging authority is acceptable.
    Low Power
  16. The degree to which members of a culutre feel threatened by ambiguous situations and how much they try to avoid them.
    Uncertainty Avoidance
  17. Societies that place a high value on material success and a focus on the task at hand.
    Achievement Culture
  18. Cultures that regard the support of relationships as an especially important goal.
    Nurturing Culture
  19. Muted groups and language
    ???
  20. Nonverbals and culture
    ???
  21. An attitude that one's own culture is superior to others.
    Ethnocentrism
  22. The relatively stable perceptions you hold of yourself.
    Self Concept
  23. At what age does self concept begin to develop?
    6 - 7 months old
  24. part of the self concept that involves evaluations of self worth.
    Self Esteem
  25. The hand is me. The foot is me.
    Object Permanence
  26. A mirroring of the judgments of those around him/her.

    Reflecting on those who have had an impact on one's self concept.
    Reflective Appraisal
  27. Evaluating ourselves in terms of how we compare to others.
    Social Comparison
  28. These people we use to evaluate our own characteristics.
    Reference Groups
  29. Characteristics of self concept
    • 1. It is subjective
    • 2. Flexible - People change
    • 3. Resists change
  30. The tendency to seek information that conforms to an existing self concept
    Cognitive Conservatism
  31. Occurs when a person's expectations of an event, and his/her behavior based on those expectations, make the outcome more likely to occur.
    Self-fulfilling Prophecy
  32. Four stages of a Self-fulfilling Prophecy
    • 1. Holding an expectation (for you or others)
    • 2. Behaving in accordance with that expectation.
    • 3. The expectation coming to pass.
    • 4. Reinforcing the original expectation.
  33. Two types of Self-fulfilling Prophecies
    1. Self imposed - Your own expectations influence your behavior.

    2. The Pygmalian Effect - when one person's expectations governs anothers actions whether those expectations are positive or negative.
  34. Methods to changing your self-concept
    • To have:
    • 1. Realistic expectations
    • 2. Realistic perception of self
    • 3. The will to change
    • 4. The skill to change
  35. The communication strategies people use to influence how others view them.
    Identity Management
  36. Public and Private Selves
    • 1. Perceived self - Private
    • 2. Presenting self - Public (facework)
  37. Charactersitics of identity management
    1. We strive to construct multiple identities.

    2. Identity mangement is collaborative. (actors/audience response)

    3. IM can be deliberate or unconscious (expressions)

    4. People differ in their degree of IM (self monitoring)
  38. The verbal and non-verbal ways in which we act to maintain our own presenting image and the images of others.
    Facework
  39. Behavior "when we are alone."
    Back Region
  40. Role Distancing
    The individual is not denying her occupancy of the role; instead, the individual is denying that she would act the same way if it were not for the role. The most likely cause of role distancing is the pressure exerted from another role to act inconsistently from the expectations of the first role (i.e., role conflict). Role distancing behaviors suggest that the individual has some resistance to the role. An example of role distancing is when a teacher explains to students that his disciplinary actions for the student's inappropriate behaviors are not due to him being a mean person, but instead are due to his role as a teacher.
  41. Physically observable qualities of a thing or situation.

    (i.e. grandmother wrapped you in a big hug)
    First Order Realities
  42. Attaching meaning to first order things or situations.

    Don't reside in objects or events but in rather in our minds.
    Second Order Realities
  43. Steps in the perception process
    • 1. Selection
    • 2. Organization
    • 3. Interpretation
    • 4. Negotiation
  44. What stimuli we pay attention to
    Loud, larger, brighter, taller, shorter, etc..

    Repitious
  45. Related to contrast or change in a situation
    Attention
  46. Cognitive frameworks that allow us to give order to the information we have selected.

    Part of organizing.
    Perceptual Schema
  47. 4 Types of perceptual sschema
    • 1. Physical Constructs - physical characteristics
    • 2. Role Constructs - social position
    • 3. Interaction Constructs - social behavior
    • 4. Psychological Constructs - internal states of mind
  48. Factors that affect interpretation
    • 1. Relational Satisfaction
    • 2. Expectation
    • 3. Personal Experience
    • 4. Assumptions About Human Behavior
  49. The process by which communicators influence each other's perceptions through communication.
    Negotiation
  50. Influences on perception
    • 1. Physiological
    • 2. Psychological
    • 3. Social
    • 4. Cultural
  51. Common tendencies in perception
    • 1. We make snap judgments
    • 2. We cling to first impressions
    • 3. We judge ourselves more charitably than we do others.
    • 4. We are influenced by our expectatons
    • 5. We are influenced by the obvious
    • 6. We assume others are like us
  52. How do we synchronize our perceptions?
    • 1. Perception Checking
    • 2. Building Empathy

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