The process of interpersonal communication - Chapters 1 - 4
Parts of the communication process
Why we communicate
1. Physical needs
2. Identity needs
4. Practical needs
Any interaction between two people
Quantitative (interpersonal communication)
Two persons interacting
When people treat one another as unique individuals, regardless of the context in which the interaction occurs or the number of people involved
Qualitative (interpersonal communication)
Features of qualitative communication
5. Intrinsic rewards
When communication is both effective and appropriate, it is a result of...
Characteristics of competent communication
1. Large repertoire of skills
3. Ability to perform skillfully
5. Empathy/Perspective taking
6. Cognitive complexity
7. Self Monitoring
Two distinct ways that members of various cultures deliver messages.
Identified by Anthroplogist Edward Hall
High or Low Context
Uses language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as directly as possible.
Self expression is valued.
Clear, eloquent speech is praiseworthy.
Verbal fluency is admired.
Relies heavily on subtle, non-verbal cues to maintain social harmony.
Relational harmony is valued by the indirect expression of options.
Communicators abstain from saying "no" directly.
Communicators talk around the point.
Ambiguity and use of silence is admired
View their primary responsibilities as helping themselves.
Feel loyalties and obligations to an in-group.
(i.e. extended family, community, organization)
The degree to which members of a society accept an unequal distribution of power.
Believe in minimizing distinctions between various social classes.
One person is as good as another.
Challenging authority is acceptable.
The degree to which members of a culutre feel threatened by ambiguous situations and how much they try to avoid them.
Societies that place a high value on material success and a focus on the task at hand.
Cultures that regard the support of relationships as an especially important goal.
Muted groups and language
Nonverbals and culture
An attitude that one's own culture is superior to others.
The relatively stable perceptions you hold of yourself.
At what age does self concept begin to develop?
6 - 7 months old
part of the self concept that involves evaluations of self worth.
The hand is me. The foot is me.
A mirroring of the judgments of those around him/her.
Reflecting on those who have had an impact on one's self concept.
Evaluating ourselves in terms of how we compare to others.
These people we use to evaluate our own characteristics.
Characteristics of self concept
1. It is subjective
2. Flexible - People change
3. Resists change
The tendency to seek information that conforms to an existing self concept
Occurs when a person's expectations of an event, and his/her behavior based on those expectations, make the outcome more likely to occur.
Four stages of a Self-fulfilling Prophecy
1. Holding an expectation (for you or others)
2. Behaving in accordance with that expectation.
3. The expectation coming to pass.
4. Reinforcing the original expectation.
Two types of Self-fulfilling Prophecies
1. Self imposed - Your own expectations influence your behavior.
2. The Pygmalian Effect - when one person's expectations governs anothers actions whether those expectations are positive or negative.
Methods to changing your self-concept
1. Realistic expectations
2. Realistic perception of self
3. The will to change
4. The skill to change
The communication strategies people use to influence how others view them.
Public and Private Selves
1. Perceived self - Private
2. Presenting self - Public (facework)
Charactersitics of identity management
1. We strive to construct multiple identities.
2. Identity mangement is collaborative. (actors/audience response)
3. IM can be deliberate or unconscious (expressions)
4. People differ in their degree of IM (self monitoring)
The verbal and non-verbal ways in which we act to maintain our own presenting image and the images of others.
Behavior "when we are alone."
The individual is not denying her occupancy of the role; instead, the individual is denying that she would act the same way if it were not for the role. The most likely cause of role distancing is the pressure exerted from another role to act inconsistently from the expectations of the first role (i.e., role conflict). Role distancing behaviors suggest that the individual has some resistance to the role. An example of role distancing is when a teacher explains to students that his disciplinary actions for the student's inappropriate behaviors are not due to him being a mean person, but instead are due to his role as a teacher.
Physically observable qualities of a thing or situation.
(i.e. grandmother wrapped you in a big hug)
First Order Realities
Attaching meaning to first order things or situations.
Don't reside in objects or events but in rather in our minds.
Second Order Realities
Steps in the perception process
What stimuli we pay attention to
Loud, larger, brighter, taller, shorter, etc..
Related to contrast or change in a situation
Cognitive frameworks that allow us to give order to the information we have selected.
Part of organizing.
4 Types of perceptual sschema
1. Physical Constructs - physical characteristics
2. Role Constructs - social position
3. Interaction Constructs - social behavior
4. Psychological Constructs - internal states of mind
Factors that affect interpretation
1. Relational Satisfaction
3. Personal Experience
4. Assumptions About Human Behavior
The process by which communicators influence each other's perceptions through communication.
Influences on perception
Common tendencies in perception
1. We make snap judgments
2. We cling to first impressions
3. We judge ourselves more charitably than we do others.