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- Refers to the ways in which people learn to conform to their society's norms, values, and roles
- e.g., learning people gain from parents, siblings, relatives, peers, teachers, mentors, and others
- (Kornblum, 2012, p. 98)
What are the three major types of socialization?
- Primary Socialization
- Secondary Socialization
- Adult Socialization
- The process by which children learn the cultural norms of the society into which they are born.
- Primary socialization occurs largely in the family.
Learning and adaptation that continues throughout life, building on the primary socialization of childhood.
- The process of socialization that occurs after childhood and that prepares people for adult roles.
- Adult socialization also involves more active selection and intervention by the person being socialized, with more personal choice being made as to what status, identities, or roles are acceptable, and to what degree.
Agents of Socialization
- Refers to the individuals who socialize others
- It consists of at least two people
- e.g., mother, father, teacher, etc.
What are the six major agencies of socialization?
- Peer Group
- Mass Media
Family as an agency of socialization
- The family is the first major agent of socialization for most individuals.
- Family helps children to internalize culture and develop a social identity. They also provide an ascribed social status to its young members.
- It can also go in the opposite direction, the child will usually socialize its family members by getting them used to their routines and will create signals for their needs.
School as an agency of socialization
- School is the first place, as children that a person begins to interact with others in a public environment.
- At school a person meets new friends, learn our society’s norms, as well as learn good moral values.
- It is also a very influential socialization agent in our life.
Community as an agency of socialization
- Large social network that families can use as a support system.
- It can consist of people who live in the same town, area, or even neighborhood.
- Or it may include a group of people who share the same values or interests such as religion, sports, etc.
- Children’s first interactions with the local community is where community can help develop their identity (self-concept) and how they fit into the group setting (group identity). They learn self- control, social skills and values of society when they are in these community based programs.
Religion as an agency of socialization
- Religion is linked with concepts and values people identify themselves with.
- People tend to develop their own religious beliefs from their parents, right from their inception. They begin to acquire knowledge of which god to believe in (or not); when, where and how to pray; what rituals to follow; etc., right from infancy, and it is these belief systems that evolve further and remain with them for the rest of their lives.
- While the major function of religion as a socialization agent is teaching people that belong to different religions, to be tolerant and respectful towards each other, things do not always work out as desired.
- The power of religion as a socializing agent should be understood well, and any sort of misinterpretations need to be avoided.
Peer group as an agency of socialization
- A peer group is a group of people of approximately the same age, sharing similar interests and probably belonging to similar backgrounds.
- A person may belong to several peer groups at a single point in time. (eg, schoolmates, sports' club, or children in his neighborhood)
- a peer group in socialization enables a child to engage in experiences which he would otherwise never experience within his family (eg, competition, conflict and cooperation, such as; the concepts of hierarchy and egalitarianism)
- Peer groups may promote the idea of independence from the thought process of the family. Individuals begin to think and act in different ways which may be, sometimes, completely opposite of their family values.
Mass Media as an agency of socialization
- Mass media is the strongest and the most argued indirect agent of socialization.
- It puts across to us, lot of ideas and mannerisms without having any kind of interpersonal communication and influences our lives to a great extent.
- we learn a lot from mass media from newspapers, magazines, radio, Internet, video games and television.
- Mass Media helps us interact and communicate with society and also to understand our social roles.
- However, the impact these agents have on our lives, and consequently on society, also depends largely on the parameters of time and space.
- eg, these agents, though performing similar functions worldwide, may have contradicting impact on the mindset of the people of a country at war, as opposed to the one at peace
- Refers to the set of roles they play over a lifetime and the ways in which those roles change as a consequence of social change
- eg, role of a minor, role of a young adult, role of a middle age adult, role of a senior citizen
- Refers to the part of the self formed in early childhood that does not change easily
- eg, set of values and norms that parents instill in their children between age one to age five
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development
- Infancy (birth to 1)
- Early Childhood (1-2)
- Play Age (2-6)
- School Age (6-12)
- Adolescence (12-18)
- Adulthood (25-65)
- Old Age (65 and over)
- Refers to a process wherein individuals go through intense, deliberate socialization designed to change major beliefs and behaviors
- eg, a person goes to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) to deal with an alcohol problem
- Refers to the social process in which an individual chooses role models and attempts to imitate their behavior
- eg., a person who imitations Britney Spears, person who imitates Elvis Presley
- Refers to the ways in which we learn our gender identity and develop according to cultural norms of masculinity and femininity
- eg, a person's feelings about whether she or he is a woman or a man, or a girl or a boy (Unique in Glee)
- Refers to the period of time working women spend doing household chores after working at a job outside the home
- eg., a woman works eight hours at paid employment and then goes home does another 2-4 hours doing household chores