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canine parvo virus type 2 has an affinity for rapidly dividing cells like what?
- crypts in intestine (necrosis)
- bone marrow (neutropenia/immunosuppression)
- myocarditis if infected before 8wks
does parvo survive in the environment?
yes, for months
what is incubation and age of highest susceptibility for parvo?
- short incubation (CS in 4-7 days)
- young puppies (6wk-6mo)
what is cause of death from parvo?
hypovolemia (large volume hemorragic diarrhea); sepsis
What is WBC findings with parvo? what diagnostic test is available?
- leukopenia, neutropenia; lymphopenia (and hypoalbuminemia)
- SNAP, ELISA for fecal antigen (false - if too early/late in disease)
what is treatment for parvo?
- supportive care - FLUIDS!!
- NPO, antiemetics, H2 blockers
- Abs (broad spectrum)
- dextrose in fluids for hypoglycemia
- deworm; promotility for GI fluid distention
- +/- nasogastric tube
what are some concurrent diseases that may go unrecognized with parvo?
unrecognized sepsis, intussusception, parasites
what type of vaccine is parvo virus vx?
what is prognosis for parvo?
- most life if treated early, appropriately and survive first 4 days
- (can be fatal esp. in very young, <10wk; septic shock)
what are three causes of large bowel diarrhea + wasting?
- chronic histiocytic ulcerative colitis (boxer colitis)
what is main target in the GI w/histoplasmosis infection?
colon (diffuse, severe, granulomatous, ulcerative colitis)
what are some causes of protein losing enteropathies?
what are two important findings associated with histoplasmosis? how is it diagnosed/?
- chronic large bowel diarrhea with wasting and PLE
- colon biopsy, rectal scraping; ID organism on cytology/histo
what is treatment for histoplasmosis? what is prognosis?
- long term azoles (4-6mo)
- dogs do well if treated early (worse prognosis if multiple system involved; poor prog w/CNS involvement)
Does giardia cause small or large bowel diarrhea?
- small bowel (but can present as large bowel too!)
- often self limiting
what is the most effective treatment for giardia with fewest side effects?
fenbendazole (drug of choice but no drug is 100% effective)
Giardia can be difficult to eliminate. is this likely due to drug resistance or reinfection?
*reinfection* from cysts encountered in environment more likely
is there a vaccine for giardia?
yes but not recommended; efficacy not established
Does feline trichomoniasis cause acute or chronic diarrhea? small or large bowel diarrhea? are these cats systemically ill or BAR?
- chronic large bowel
- healthy otherwise
Is feline trichomoniasis more common in purebred or DSH cats? young or old?
young pure breds in multi-cat housing
what type of colitis would histopath show with feline trichomoniasis?
mild lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis
what is best diagnostic test for feline trichomoniasis? what can this organism be mistaken for on microscopy?
- fecal PCR assay (detects 80-90% of cases)
- resembles giardia
what is treatment for feline trichomoniasis? what is a serious side effect of this treatment that clients should be warned of?
- no labeled prescriptions; refractory to most antibiotics
- *Ronidazole* with confirmed diagnosis only (neurotoxicosis)
what is a normal spore forming anaerobic flora that causes illness via endotoxemic effects that incr. permeability/decr. absorption?
clostridium perfringens (esp. w/high density housing)
does clostridium cause small or large bowel diarrhea? acute or chronic?
- large bowel
- acute- chronic - or recurrent
what is description of the diarrhea caused by clostridium?
- watery to semiformed
- mucous, blood, tenesmus
- acute HGE
- may be self limiting
what are some complicating factors associated with diagnostics?
- normal flora so not confirmatory to see fecal endospores or get + culture
- can try fecal toxin assay (ELISA, PCR)
what is treatment for clostridium?
- susceptible to variety of Abs
- -Clavamox; metronidazole; tylosin
- fiber supplements helpful too
what is another possibly self limiting cause of watery diarrhea associated w/crowded housing (curved rod that resembles sea gull)? is this also normal flora like clostridium?
campylobacter - NOT normal flora (so can do fecal culture)
what is treatment for campylobacter?
- (caution: pets as possible cause of infection to humans)
In the pacific northwest, what is the risk of feeding raw salmon to dogs?
- salmon infected with liver fluke that carries neorickettsia helminthoeca
- (snail as intermediate host for N. salmincola-fluke)
what systems of the dog are affected by salmon poisoning? what are some main CBC findings?
- intestines and lymph nodes
- thrombocytopenia; lymphopenia, eosinophilia; hypoalbuminemia
does salmon poisoning cause small or large bowel diarrhea?
- small +/- blood
- (also anorexia, vomiting, fever)
how is salmon poisoning diagnosed?
- presumptive: based on hx, consumption of fish
- definitive: see N. salmincola ova in feces (fluke)
- or N. helmintheca from FNA of lymph nodes
what is tx for salmon poisoning? what is prognosis?
- tetracycline, doxycycline to eliminate rickettsia
- praziquantel to eliminate fluke
- most respond well; fatal if left untreated
Collie presents with weight loss and large bowel diarrhea. what should be on your differential list as algae the dog may have acquired from environment?
- protothecosis = wasting + large bowel signs
- (eyes, skin, etc. can also be affected)
how is protothecosis diagnosed and treated? prognosis?
- identify organism from rectal cytology or histopath from colon
- tx: amphotericin B or azoles
- prognosis is poor
what is the most common etiology for maldigestive disease of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency?
pancreatic acinar cell atrophy (hereditary predisoposition)
What vitamin deficiency is associated with EPI?
- cobalamine (B12)
- serum cobalamine tests reveal 75-80% decrease
other than acinar atrophy, what are other causes of EPI?
- chronic pancreatitis
- pancreatic hypoplasia
what are some common clinical signs associated w/EPI? large or small bowel diarrhea? dog or cat?
- polyphagia w/weight loss
- small bowel diarrhea (not always classic feature)
- dog ~ 3yr
How is EPI diagnosed if history/CS suggest it?
- trypsin-like immunoassay is confirmatory
- (TLI < 2.5 microgram/L from fasted sample)
what is treatment for EPI?
- enzyme replacement - Pancrezyme, Viokase powders preferred
- low fat/high quality diets
- H2 blockers + Abs + B12 supplements prn
Cats get EPI less common than dog but what is usually the etiology for feline EPI?
- chronic pancreatitis (triaditis)
- TLI < 8
- same therapy as dog (enzyme replacement powder)
what are the three different inflammatory bowel infiltrative patterns that characterize the disease?
- lymphocytic -plasmacytic
- granulomatous (FIP?)