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  1. canine parvo virus type 2 has an affinity for rapidly dividing cells like what?
    • crypts in intestine (necrosis)
    • bone marrow (neutropenia/immunosuppression)
    • myocarditis if infected before 8wks
  2. does parvo survive in the environment?
    yes, for months
  3. what is incubation and age of highest susceptibility for parvo?
    • short incubation (CS in 4-7 days)
    • young puppies (6wk-6mo)
  4. what is cause of death from parvo?
    hypovolemia (large volume hemorragic diarrhea); sepsis
  5. What is WBC findings with parvo? what diagnostic test is available?
    • leukopenia, neutropenia; lymphopenia (and hypoalbuminemia)
    • SNAP, ELISA for fecal antigen (false - if too early/late in disease)
  6. what is treatment for parvo?
    • supportive care - FLUIDS!!
    • NPO, antiemetics, H2 blockers
    • Abs (broad spectrum)
    • dextrose in fluids for hypoglycemia
    • deworm; promotility for GI fluid distention
    • +/- nasogastric tube
  7. what are some concurrent diseases that may go unrecognized with parvo?
    unrecognized sepsis, intussusception, parasites
  8. what type of vaccine is parvo virus vx?
    modified live
  9. what is prognosis for parvo?
    • most life if treated early, appropriately and survive first 4 days
    • (can be fatal esp. in very young, <10wk; septic shock)
  10. what are three causes of large bowel diarrhea + wasting?
    • histoplasmosis
    • protothecosis
    • chronic histiocytic ulcerative colitis (boxer colitis)
  11. what is main target in the GI w/histoplasmosis infection?
    colon (diffuse, severe, granulomatous, ulcerative colitis)
  12. what are some causes of protein losing enteropathies?
    • histoplasmosis
    • IBD
    • lymphosarcoma
    • lymphangiectasia
  13. what are two important findings associated with histoplasmosis? how is it diagnosed/?
    • chronic large bowel diarrhea with wasting and PLE
    • colon biopsy, rectal scraping; ID organism on cytology/histo
  14. what is treatment for histoplasmosis? what is prognosis?
    • long term azoles (4-6mo)
    • dogs do well if treated early (worse prognosis if multiple system involved; poor prog w/CNS involvement)
  15. Does giardia cause small or large bowel diarrhea?
    • small bowel (but can present as large bowel too!)
    • often self limiting
  16. what is the most effective treatment for giardia with fewest side effects?
    fenbendazole (drug of choice but no drug is 100% effective)
  17. Giardia can be difficult to eliminate. is this likely due to drug resistance or reinfection?
    *reinfection* from cysts encountered in environment more likely
  18. is there a vaccine for giardia?
    yes but not recommended; efficacy not established
  19. Does feline trichomoniasis cause acute or chronic diarrhea? small or large bowel diarrhea? are these cats systemically ill or BAR?
    • chronic large bowel
    • healthy otherwise
  20. Is feline trichomoniasis more common in purebred or DSH cats? young or old?
    young pure breds in multi-cat housing
  21. what type of colitis would histopath show with feline trichomoniasis?
    mild lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis
  22. what is best diagnostic test for feline trichomoniasis? what can this organism be mistaken for on microscopy?
    • fecal PCR assay (detects 80-90% of cases)
    • resembles giardia
  23. what is treatment for feline trichomoniasis? what is a serious side effect of this treatment that clients should be warned of?
    • no labeled prescriptions; refractory to most antibiotics
    • *Ronidazole* with confirmed diagnosis only (neurotoxicosis)
  24. what is a normal spore forming anaerobic flora that causes illness via endotoxemic effects that incr. permeability/decr. absorption?
    clostridium perfringens (esp. w/high density housing)
  25. does clostridium cause small or large bowel diarrhea? acute or chronic?
    • large bowel
    • acute- chronic - or recurrent
  26. what is description of the diarrhea caused by clostridium?
    • watery to semiformed
    • mucous, blood, tenesmus
    • acute HGE
    • may be self limiting
  27. what are some complicating factors associated with diagnostics?
    • normal flora so not confirmatory to see fecal endospores or get + culture
    • can try fecal toxin assay (ELISA, PCR)
  28. what is treatment for clostridium?
    • susceptible to variety of Abs
    • -Clavamox; metronidazole; tylosin
    • fiber supplements helpful too
  29. what is another possibly self limiting cause of watery diarrhea associated w/crowded housing (curved rod that resembles sea gull)? is this also normal flora like clostridium?
    campylobacter - NOT normal flora (so can do fecal culture)
  30. what is treatment for campylobacter?
    • erythromycin
    • (caution: pets as possible cause of infection to humans)
  31. In the pacific northwest, what is the risk of feeding raw salmon to dogs?
    • salmon infected with liver fluke that carries neorickettsia helminthoeca
    • (snail as intermediate host for N. salmincola-fluke)
  32. what systems of the dog are affected by salmon poisoning? what are some main CBC findings?
    • intestines and lymph nodes
    • thrombocytopenia; lymphopenia, eosinophilia; hypoalbuminemia
  33. does salmon poisoning cause small or large bowel diarrhea?
    • small +/- blood
    • (also anorexia, vomiting, fever)
  34. how is salmon poisoning diagnosed?
    • presumptive: based on hx, consumption of fish
    • definitive: see N. salmincola ova in feces (fluke)
    • or N. helmintheca from FNA of lymph nodes
  35. what is tx for salmon poisoning? what is prognosis?
    • tetracycline, doxycycline to eliminate rickettsia
    • praziquantel to eliminate fluke
    • most respond well; fatal if left untreated
  36. Collie presents with weight loss and large bowel diarrhea. what should be on your differential list as algae the dog may have acquired from environment?
    • protothecosis = wasting + large bowel signs
    • (eyes, skin, etc. can also be affected)
  37. how is protothecosis diagnosed and treated? prognosis?
    • identify organism from rectal cytology or histopath from colon
    • tx: amphotericin B or azoles
    • prognosis is poor
  38. what is the most common etiology for maldigestive disease of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency?
    pancreatic acinar cell atrophy (hereditary predisoposition)
  39. What vitamin deficiency is associated with EPI?
    • cobalamine (B12)
    • serum cobalamine tests reveal 75-80% decrease
  40. other than acinar atrophy, what are other causes of EPI?
    • chronic pancreatitis
    • pancreatic hypoplasia
    • pancreaticneoplasia
  41. what are some common clinical signs associated w/EPI? large or small bowel diarrhea? dog or cat?
    • polyphagia w/weight loss
    • small bowel diarrhea (not always classic feature)
    • dog ~ 3yr
  42. How is EPI diagnosed if history/CS suggest it?
    • trypsin-like immunoassay is confirmatory
    • (TLI < 2.5 microgram/L from fasted sample)
  43. what is treatment for EPI?
    • enzyme replacement - Pancrezyme, Viokase powders preferred
    • low fat/high quality diets
    • H2 blockers + Abs + B12 supplements prn
  44. Cats get EPI less common than dog but what is usually the etiology for feline EPI?
    • chronic pancreatitis (triaditis)
    • TLI < 8
    • same therapy as dog (enzyme replacement powder)
  45. what are the three different inflammatory bowel infiltrative patterns that characterize the disease?
    • lymphocytic -plasmacytic
    • eosinophilic
    • granulomatous (FIP?)
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2013-03-09 21:08:37

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