Medic 14 A&P Ch 4 v2

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  1. a-
    Without; avascular
  2. Apo-
    From; apocrine
  3. Cardium
  4. Chondros
  5. dendron
    Tree; dendrites
  6. desmos
  7. gila
    Glue; neuroglia
  8. histos
    Tissue; histology
  9. holos
  10. hyalos
    Glass; hyaline cartilage
  11. inter-
    between; interstitial
  12. krinein
    to secrete; exocrine
  13. lacus
  14. meros
    part; merocrine
  15. neuro
    nerve; neuron
  16. os
    bone;osseous tissue
  17. peri-
  18. phagein
    to eat; macrophage
  19. pleura
    ribs; pleural membrane
  20. pseudes
    false; pseudostratified
  21. sistere
    to set; interstitial
  22. soma
    body; desmosome
  23. squama
    plate or scale; squamous
  24. vas
    vessel; vascular
  25. Chapter objectives
    • Identify the bodys four major tissue types and describe their roles
    • discuss the types of functions of epithelial cells
    • describe the relationship between form and functions for each epithelial type
    • compare the structures and functions of the various types of connective tissues
    • explain how epithelial and connective tissues combine to from four types of membranes and specify the functions of each
    • discribe the three types of muscle tissue and the special structural freatures of each
    • discuss the basic structure and role of neural tissue
    • explaing how tissues respond i a coordinatied mannor to maintain homeostasis
    • describe how aging affects the tissues of the body
  26. Histoogy
    Study of tissues
  27. Four basic tissue types
    • Epithelial tissue
    • connective tissue
    • muscle tissue
    • neural tissue
  28. Tissues are
    collections of cells and extracellular material that preform a specific, but limited range of functions
  29. Epithelia
    • Covers exposed surfaces 
    • line internal passageways and chambers
    • produce glandular secretions
  30. Connective
    • Fill internal spaces
    • provides structural support
    • store energy
  31. Muscle tissue
    conracts to produce active movement
  32. Neural tissue
    • conducts electrical impulses 
    • carries information
  33. Epithelial tissue includes
    • Epithelia: Layers of cells that conver internal or external surfaces 
    • Glands: are composed of secreting cells derived from epithelia
  34. Important characteristics of epithelia
    • As opposed to other tissue types epithelia cells are bound closely together
    • A free (apical surface exposed to the enviroment or to some internal chamber or passageway
    • Attachment ot underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane
    • Avascular
    • Epithelial cells that are damaged are continually replaced or regenerated
  35. Epithelia
    • cover external and internal body surfaces 
    • covers skin, epithelia line inernal passageways like the respiratory, digestive reproductive and urinary tracts.
  36. Essential functions of epithelia
    • Physical protection
    • Control permeability 
    • provide sensation
    • specialized secretions: Exocrine, Endocrine
  37. Physical protection of epithelia
    Protects eposed internal and external surfaces from abrasion, dehydration, and destruction by chemical or biological agents
  38. Permeabilty control of epithelia
    Any substance that enters or leaves the body must cross and epithelium
  39. Sensation by epithelia
    Specialized epithelia cells can detect changes in the enviroment and relat information about such changes to the nervous system
  40. Specialized secretion by epithelia
    • Gland cells are scattered among other cell types in the epithelium 
    • glandular epithelium most or all cells are actively produce secretions
  41. Exocrine
    secretions are discharged to the surface of the epithelium
  42. Endocrine
    • Secretions are released into the surrounding tissue fluid and blood.
    • these secretions are called hormones
  43. Epithelial cell membranes are held together by
    • Transmembrane proteins calle cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
    • and intracellular cement (a protein polysaccharide mixture)
  44. Types of cell juncitons
    • Tight junction
    • gap junctions
    • desmosomes
  45. Tight junctions
    • the lipid layers of adjacent cell membranes  tightly bound together by interlocking membrane proteins
    • basal to the tight junction is a continuous adhesion belt that encircles cells and binds them to their neighbors
    • tight junctions prevent passage or water and solutes between cells. common between epithelial cells exposed to harsh chemicals or powerful enzymes. like the digestive tract
  46. Gap junction
    • Two cells held together by embedded membrane proteins
    • they are channel proteins they form a narrow pasageway that lets small molecules and ions pass from cell to cell.
    • GAp juntions interconnect cells in some ciliated epithelia
    • most abundent in cardiac muscle and smooth muscle tissue, they are essential to the coordination or muscle contractions.
  47. Desmosomes
    the cell membrane  of two cells are locked together by intercellular cement and by membrane proteins connected to a network of intermediate filaments

    • desmosomes hat form a small disc are called button desmosomes
    • hemidesmosomes resemble half of abutton desmosomes and attach a cell to the basement membrane
    • Desmosomes are abundant between cells in the spierficial layers of the skin
  48. Epithelial surface
    • the apical surface of epithelial cells have specialized structures that distinguish them from other body cells
    • Microvilli line / cilia etc
  49. Basement membrane
    • No cells in the basement membrane, consists of a network of protein fibers.
    • provides a barrier that restricts the moment of proteins and othjer large molecules from the inderlying connective tissue into the epitheliem
  50. Unspecialized cells
    Germinative cells/ stem cells
  51. Classification of epithelia
    • Layering: simple and stratified 
    • Cell shapes: squamous,cuboidal, and columnar
  52. Simple Epithelium
    • Consists of a single layer of cells that cover the basement membrane
    • Only found in protected areas of body due to how fragile they are
    • they are characteristic of regions where secretion or absorption occurs
  53. Stratified epithelium
    • Provides greater protecion because ot has several layers of cells about the basement membrane
    • found in areas subject to mechanical or chemical stresses
  54. Squamous
    thec ells are thin and flat, and the nucleus occupies the thickets portion of each cell
  55. Cuboidal
    Resmble little hexagonal boxes when seen in three dimensions , but in typical secional view they appear square.
  56. Columnar
    cells are also hexagonal but taller and more slender. The nuclei are crowded into a narrow band to close to the basement membrane and the height of the epithelium is several times the distance between the two nuclei
  57. Simple squamous
    • Found where absorption takes place or where a slippery surface reduces  friction
    • lungs,lining of ventral body cavities, and the lining of the blood vessesl and inner surfaces of the heart.
  58. Simple cubodial
    • Provides limited protection where secretion or absorption takes place. These functions are enhanced by larger cells, which have room for the necessary organelles
    • Secrete enzymes and buffers into the pancreas and salivary glands
    • Kidney tubules involved in the production of urine
  59. Simple columnar
    • provides some protection and may also occur in areas of absorption or secretion
    • lines stomach, intestional tract, and excretory ducts
  60. Psudostratified epithelia
    • Looks stratified but isnt
    • All cells make contact with basement membrane

    most of the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi, and portions of the male reproductive tract.
  61. Transitional epithelium
    Withstands considerable stretching. its lines the ureters and urinary bladder.
  62. Stratified squamous
    Where mechanical stresses are severe.
  63. Location/Function

    Simple squamous epithelium
    • epithelia lining ventral body cavities;lining of the heart and blood vessels; portions of the kidney tubules(thin sections of loops of henie); inner lining of cornea;alveoli 
    • Reduces frictionl; controls vessel permeability; preforms absorption and secretion
  64. Location/Function
    Simple cubodial epithelium
    • glands;ducts; portions of the kidney tubules; thyroid gland
    • limited protection,secretion, absorption
  65. Location/function
    Simple columnar Epithelium
    • Lining of the stomach,intestine,gallbladder,uterine tubes and collecting ducts of kidneys
    • Protection,secretion, absorption
  66. Location/Function
    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
    • lining of the nasal cavity,trachea, and bronchi:portions of the male reproductive tract
    • protection, secretion
  67. Function/Location
    Transitional Epithelium
    • Urinary bladder; renal pelvis of kidneys; ureters
    • permits expansion, and recoil after stretching
  68. Location/Function
    Stratified squamous Epithelium
    • Surface of the skin, lining of the mouth, throat, esophagus,rectum, anus, and vagina
    • provides physical protection against abrasion,pathogens, and chemical attack
  69. Exocrine secretions
    Are discharge their products a duct or tube onto some external or internal surface
  70. Endocrine secretions (hormones)
    • are produced by ductless glands and released into blood or tissue fluids 
    • Unicellular glands(goblet cells)
    • multicellular glands
  71. Secretory sheet
    simplest multicellular exocrine gland that lines the stomach and protects it fromits own acids and enzymes
  72. Exocrine glands are classified by
    mode of secretion
  73. Modes of secretion
    • Merocrine
    • Apocrine
    • Holocrine
  74. Merocrine
    • Mucin mixes with water to from mucus
    • Cell stays intact
  75. Apocrine
    Involves loss of both cytoplasm and the secretory product
  76. Holocrine
    Entire cells becomes packed with secretions and ten bursts and dies
  77. Description/Example

    • Secretion occurs through exocytosis
    • saliva from salivary glands; mucus in digestive and respiratory tracts; perspiration on the skin; milk in the breasts
  78. Description/Example

    • Secretion occurs through the loss of cytoplasm that contains secretory product
    • milk in breats; viscous underarm perspiration
  79. Description/Example

    • Secretion occurs through loss of entire cell that contains secretory product
    • Skin oils and waxy coating of hair (produced by sebaceous glands of the skin)
  80. Description/Example

    Serous Secretion
    • Watery, solution that contains enzymes 
    • secretions of parotid salivary gland
  81. Description/Example

    Mucous secretion
    • thick, silppery mucus
    • Secretions of sublingual salivary gland
  82. Description/Example

    • Produces more than one type of secretion
    • secretions of submandibular salivary gland(serous and mucous)
  83. Connective tissues
    are the most diverse tissues of the body.
  84. Connective tissue have three basic components
    • Specialized cells
    • Protein fibers
    • Fluid known as ground substance
  85. Martrix that surrounds the cells is formed of
    extracellular proteins and ground substance
  86. Major difference between epithetlial cells and connective tissue is that
    Epithelial tissue is comprised almost entirely of cells, the majority of the volume of connective tissue is the extracellular matrix
  87. Connective tissues are distributed throughout the body but are never exposed to the enviroment
    Many connective tissues are highly vascular, and contain receptors that provide pain pressure temperature and other sensations
  88. Connective tissue functions
    • Support and protection
    • Transportation of materials 
    • storage of energy reserves 
    • defense of the body
  89. Classes of connective tissue
    • Connective tissue proper:loose and dense
    • Fluid connective tissue:blood and lymph
    • Suupporting connective tissues:cartilage and bone
  90. Connective tissue proper
    • consists of many type of cells and fibers within a matrix that contains a syrupy ground substance.
    • examples are the tissue that underlies the skin,fatty tissue, and tendons and ligaments
  91. Fluid connective tissues
    • have a distinctive population of cells suspended in a matrix of watery ground substance that contains dissolved proteins.
    • Blood and lymph
  92. Supporting connective tissue
    • have a less diverse cell population thatn connective tissue proper and a matrix of dense ground substnace and closely packed fibers.
    • Cartilage and bone
  93. Connective tissue proper cell population

    Most abundant cells in connective tissue proper. Perminant residents responsible for producing and maintaining the connective tissue and ground substance
  94. Connective tissue proper cell population
    • Scattered throughout the matrix. "big eater" engulf or phagocytise damaged cells or pathogens that enter the tissue.
    • Release chemicals that mobolize the immune system, and attract other macrophages and other cells involved in tissue defense
  95. Connective tissue proper cell population

    Fat cells (adipocytes)
    • Perminant residents
    • contain such a large droplet of lipid that the nucleus and other organelles are squeezed to one side of the cell
  96. Connective tissue proper cell population

    Mast Cells
    Small mobile connective tissue often found near blood vessels. Cytoplasm of a mast cell is packed with vesicles filled with chemicals that are released to begin the bodys defensive activites after and injury or infection
  97. Connective tissue fibers
    • Collagen fibers
    • Elastic fibers
    • Reticular
  98. Collagen fibers
    Are long straight and unbranded. these strong but flexable fibers are the most common fibers in the connective tissue proper
  99. Elastic fibers
    Contain the protein elastin. THey are branched and wavy and after stretching will return to their original length
  100. Reticular fibers
    The least common of the three, are thinner than collagen fibers and commonly form a branching interwoven framework in various organs
  101. Connective tissue categorized as
    • loose connective tissue 
    • dense connective tissue
  102. Loose connective tissue (areolar tissue)
    • is the least specialized connective tissue in the adult body
    • Contains all the cells and fibers found in any connective tissue proper, in addtion to an extensive blood supply.
  103. Adipose tissue
    • Or fat
    • is a loose connective tissue that contains large number of fat cells 
    • common under the skin of the sides,buttock, and breasts.
  104. Dense connective tissue
    • consist of mostly collagen fibers 
    • may also be fibrous or collagenous tissues
    • Dense regular conective tissue
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
  105. Tendons
    are chords of dense regular connective tissue that attach skeletal muscles to bones
  106. Ligaments
    • Resemble tendons but connect one bone to another
    • ligaments contain elastic fibers as well as collagen fibers
  107. Location/Function

    Loose connective tissue
    Beneath dermis of skin, digestive tract, respiratory and urinary tracts: between muscles; around blood vessels nerves and around joints
  108. Location/Function

    Adipose tissue
    Deep to the skin, especially at sides, buttocks, breasts, padding around eyes and kidneys

    Provides padding and cushions shocks: insulates; stores energy reserves
  109. Location/Function
    Dense connective tissue
    • Between skeletal muscles and skeleton(tendons); between bones (ligaments) covering skeletal muscles; capsules of internal organs
    • provides firm attachment conducts pull of muscles; reduces friction between muscles; stablizes relative postions of bones; helps preven overexpansion of organs
  110. Fluid connective tissues
    • blood and lymph that contain distinctive collections of cells in the fluid matrix.
    • in blood the matrix is caled plasma.
    • Red blood cells-transport oxygen
    • white blood cells- immune
    • platelets, which are cell fragments that function in blood clotting.
  111. Supporting connective tissue
    Cartilage and bone

    Strong framework for the body
  112. The matrix of cartilage is
    a firm gel that contains embedded fibers
  113. Chondrocytes
    • only cells found within the matrix, live in small pockets known as lacunae
    • Due to cartilage being avascular , chondrocytes must obtain and eliminate waste products by diffusion
  114. Structures of cartilage are covered and set apart from surounding tissues by
    • a perchondrium
    • Which contains an inner cellular layer and an outer fibrous layer
  115. Types of cartilage
    • Hyaline cartilage 
    • Elastic carto;age
    • fibrocartilage
  116. Hyaline cartilage
    Most common type of cartulage. the matrix contains closely packed collagen fibers which make hyaline cartilage tough but flexable
  117. Elastic cartilage
    contains  numerous elastic fibers that make it extremely resilant and flexable
  118. Fibrocartilage
    has little ground substance and its matrix is dominated by collagen fibers. these fibers are densly interwoven which makes this tissue extremely durable and tough
  119. Location/function

    Hyaline Cartilage
    • Between tips of ribs amd bones of sternum; covering bone surfaces at synovial joints; supporting larynx, trachea and bronchi; forming par of the nasal septum
    • Provides stiff but somewhat flexible support, reduces friction between bony surfaces
  120. Location/Function

    Elastic Cartilage
    • Auricle of external ear; epiglottis; acoustic canal; cuneiform cartilages of larynx
    • Provides support but tolerates distortion withot damage and returns to origional shape
  121. Location/Function

    • Pads within knee joint; between pubic bones of pelvis; intervertebral discs separating vertebrae
    • resitis compression; prevents bone to bone contact; limits relative movement
  122. Bone (Osseous tissue)
    • Lacuanae within the matrix contains bones cells or osteocytes
    • Lacunae surrpond the blood vessels that branch thrpigh the bony matrix.
  123. osteocytes obtain nutrients through
    cytoplasmic extensions that reach blood vessels and other osteocytes through a branching network within the  boney matrix called canaliculi
  124. Periosteum
    is a covering that contains
  125. Membranes at the tissue level
    Epitheelia and connective tissue combine to form membraes that cover and protect other structures and tissues
  126. Types of tissue membranes
    • Mucous
    • serous
    • cutaneous
    • synovial
  127. Mucous Membranes (mucosae)
    • Lines cavities that communicate with the exterior including the digestive, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tract
    • the connective tissue portion of the lamina propria
    • lined with simple epithelia that preform absorptive or secretory functions
  128. Serous Membrane
    • line the sealed internal subdivisions of the ventral body cavity
    • Pleura
    • Peritoneum
    • Pericardium
    • fiction is reduced by serous fluid formed from underlying tissues
  129. Cutaneous membrane(skin)
    • Covers the surface of the body 
    • membrane is thick and relatively waterproof
  130. Articulations
    Bones contact one another at joints
  131. Synovial membrane
    • Consists primarily of loose connective tissue and an incomplete layer of epithelial tissue
    • lines joints that allow free movement
  132. Muscle Tissue
    • Specialized for contraction
    • interactions between filaments of myosin and actin. which are proteins in the cytoskeleton of many cells.
  133. Types of muscle tissue
    • Skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  134. Skeletal muscle
    • contains very large multinucleated cells
    • Because they are relaively long and slender they are ususally called muscle fibers
    • Will not contract unless stimulated by nerves
    • Striated voluntary muscle
  135. Cardiac Muscle tissue
    • Only found in the heart
    • Is striated  
    • cell only has a single nucleus
    • Cardiac muscle cells are interconnected at incalated discs, attachment sites that contain gap junctions and demosomes 
    • pacemaker cells are responsible for the automaticty of the heart.
    • Striated involuntary muscle
  136. Smooth muscle tissue
    • Is found in the walls of blood vessels, around hollow organs.
    • Cells is small and slender
    • cells have one nucleus
    • is not striated 
    • smooth muscle cells can divide and can regenerate after injurt
    • Smooth muscle cells may contract on their own or contractions may be triggered by neural activity.
    • Nonstriated involuntary muscle
  137. Neural tissue (nervous tissue or nerve tissue)
    • is specialized for conduction of electrical impulses from one region of the body to the other.
    • most neural tissue 98% is concentrated in the brain and spinal cord.
  138. Types of neural Cells
    • Neurons
    • Neuroglia
    • Our concious and unconcious thought processes reflect communication between neurons.
    • Neuroglia provide physical support for neural tissue, maintain the chemical composition of tissue fluids, supply nutrients to neurons, and defend the tissue from infection.
  139. Neurons can reach up to a meter long
  140. Neurons contain
    • Cell  body that contains a large nucleus
    • numerous branching projections called dendrites- recieve information
    • one axon- carry information to other cells.
    • axons are also called nerve fibers
    • each axon ends at a synaptic terminal, where the neuron communicates with other cells.
  141. Restoration of homeostasis following a tissue injury:
    • Inflamnation 
    • regeneration
  142. Inflammatory response
    Area is isolated from neighboring healhty tissue while dmaaged cells, tissue components and any dangerous microorganisms are cleaned up.
  143. When stimuli kill cells,damage fibers or injure tissues
    They trigeer inflammatory response by stimulating mast cells(release histamine and heparin)
  144. Regeneration
    Fibroblasts produce a dense network of collagen fibers known as scar tissue or fibrous tissue.
  145. Fibrosis
    Permanent replacement  damaged cells with fibrous connective tissue
Card Set:
Medic 14 A&P Ch 4 v2
2013-03-10 19:03:47
Medic 14

Chapter 4
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