Sociology 220 CH 6

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  1. Social category
    • Refers to a collection of individuals who are grouped together* because they share a trait deemed by the observer to be socially relevant
    • *purpose of being grouped is to make an analysis
    • eg, all of the teenage mothers in San Pablo; Contra Costa County; California; USA
  2. Examples of Social Categories
    • Baby Boomers
    • Generation X
    • Title Wave (more interested in title of job than pay)
  3. Social Group
    • Refers to a set of two or more individuals who share a sense of common identity and belonging and who interact on a regular basis
    • Members of a social group are often recuited according to specific criteria of membership and are bound together by a set of membership rights and mutual obligations
    • eg, Geechees in Georgia, Crips in Los Angeles, Latin Kings in NY
  4. Group
    • Refers to any collection of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations regarding one another's behavior
    • It consists of at least two people
    • eg, a discussion group, bible study class
  5. Primary Group
    • Refers to a group that is characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation
    • eg, a family; a peer group
  6. Secondary Group *
    • Refers to a group whose members have a shared goal or purpose but are not bound by strong emotional ties
    • It is always based on a written or unwritten contract
    • eg, a classroom of college students (syllabus & application for school)
  7. Dyad
    • Refers to a group consisting of two people
    • eg, a couple in a relationship; a grandparent & grandchild living together
  8. Triad
    • Refers to a group consisting of three people
    • eg, three people in a love triangle; three people in a clique
    • ~ change in a relationship can cause hardships on the original relationship
  9. Community
    • A set of primary and secondary groups in which individuals carry out important life functions
    • eg, raising a family, earning a living, finding shelter
  10. What are the two types of communities?
    • Territorial Communities
    • Nonterritorial Communities
  11. Territorial Communities
    • a population that functions within a particular geographic area
    • a community composed of one or more neighborhoods with specific geographic boundaries
  12. Nonterritorial Communities
    • a network of relationships formed around shared goals
    • it is also a community which functions as a network with shared and is organized around some task
  13. In-Group
    • Refers to a social group to which an individual has a feeling of allegiance
    • It is usually a primary group, but not always because it can be a micro level term, middle level term, or a macro level term
    • eg, may be based on race, gender, social class, city, etc.
  14. Out-Group
    • Refers to a social group to which an individual does not have a feeling of allegiance
    • It may be in conflict with the in-group
    • eg, the Crips are the in-group & the Bloods are the out-group or vice versa
  15. Reference groups
    Refers to a group that an individual uses as a frame of reference for self-evaluation and attitude formation
  16. Bystander Effect
    Refers to a social condition wherein people will avoid intervening as a crime is taking place or refrain from
  17. Who was involved in the first bystander effect and when?
    • Kitty Genovese
    • New York
    • 1964
  18. What are the four principles of interaction?
    • Pleasure Principle
    • Rationality Principle
    • Reciprocity Principle
    • Fairness Principle
  19. Pleasure Principle
    • Refers to a principle of interaction wherein people seek pleasure and avoid pain
    • It is based on the idea that over time people will participate in a group as long as the pleasure outweighs the pain, but will withdraw when the pain outweighs the pleasure
    • eg, a woman in an abusive relationship wherein she makes a final break after leaving seven times
  20. Rationality Principle
    • Refers to a principle of interaction wherein people change their behavior according to whether they think they will be worse or better off as a consequence
    • It is based on the idea that when people make decisions about thier interactions with others, they tend to make rough calculations of costs and benefits
    • eg, a student reads every chapter in the book 3 times before the midterm
  21. Reciprocity Principle
    • Refers to a principle of interaction wherein a person helps other people because he or she was helped
    • eg, W. E. B. DuBois was helped by others to get a college education and he spent the rest of his life trying to help other people become college graduates
  22. Fairness principle
    • Refers to a principle of interaction wherein a person expects to be treated fairly and gets upset when they feel they have not been treated fairly
    • It is based on the idea about what is fair in their interactions with others often conflict with simple calculations of gain and loss
  23. Definition of the situation
    • Refers to a person's perception and interpretation of what is important in a situation and what actions are appropriate
    • The term was coined by W. I. Thomas who said that, "Situations we define as real, are real in their consequences"
  24. Formal Organization
    • Refers to a group that has an explicit, often written, set of norms, statuses, and roles that specify each member's relationships to the others and the conditions under which those relationship hold
    • eg, the Black Panther Party
  25. Informal Organization
    Refers to a group whose norms and statuses are generally agreed upon but are not set down in writing
  26. Voluntary Association
    • Refers to a formal organization whose members pursue shared interests and arrive at decisions through some sort of democratic process
    • eg, the PTA (Parents and Teachers Association)
  27. Bureaucracy
    • First studied by Max Weber*
    • Refers to a formal organization characterized by a clearly defined hieracrchy with a commitment to rules, efficiency, and impersonality
    • It is a formal organization with
    • (1) clearly defined positions
    • (2) positions in a hierarchy
    • (3) rules and precedents
    • (4) impersonality
    • (5)a career ladder and
    • (6) the norm of efficiency
    • eg, Contra Costa College; Kaiser Permanente, Chevron
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Sociology 220 CH 6
2013-03-09 23:15:44
Sociology 220

Sociology 220 chapter 6 notecards
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