Test Questions Phyiology

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Test Questions Phyiology
2013-03-13 14:01:01
Test Questions Phyiology

Test Questions Phyiology
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  1. True or False:
    Receptor potentials are all or none, that is they have the same magnitude regardless of the strength of the stimulus.
  2. What best describes lateral inhibition in sensory processing?
    Inhibitory inter-neurons decrease action potentials from receptors at the periphery of a stimulated region.
  3. Which of the following best illustrates the concept of adequete stimulus?
    Some thermoreceptors are stimulated by an increase in temperature
  4. Which of the following is TRUE about pain sensation
    Natural, analgesia occurs when endogenous opiates bind to receptors on afferent pain fibers
  5. Which neuromodulator stimulates pain in nocicpetors?
  6. Becoming aware of the presence of a stimulus but not being able to locate it is
    a sensation
  7. Receptors... 4 Things
    *Respond to various physical or chemical changes in their evironment.

    Change other forms of energy into electrical energy.

    Respond more readily to their adequate stimulus.

    Are found at the peripheral endings of afferent neurons
  8. Fibers originate from the _____ and _____ levels.
    Thoracic & Lumbar
  9. What system would constrict the digestive organs during times of greater physical activity?
  10. Which hormone below acts as a feed forward system alerting the pancreas that food is soon to be absorbed?
    GIP from the small intestines
  11. Regarding the structure and synthesis of hormones:
    Vasopressin is synthesized in the paraventricular _______ nucleus of the hypothalamus
  12. Steroids are produced from?
    Include steroids such as?
    Are carried by being attached?
    Can act like?
    • Cholestrol
    • Include: Cortisone, DHEA, and estrogen
    • Attached to plasma proteins only small % found floating in plasma.

    Can act like transcription factors and influence DNA
  13. Which of the following statements about hypothalamic-releasing hormones is true?
    They stimulate the secretion of specific hormones from anterior pituitary gland.
  14. If the adrenal glands were removed from a patient, his cortisol levels would _____ and secretion of _____ by adenohypophysis would increase because of the loss of the negative feedback system.
    Decrease / ACTH
  15. Stimuli for the secretion of growth hormones include.....
    • Deep Sleep
    • &
    • Excercising
  16. Stimuli for the secretion of growth hormone includes .....
    • Deep Sleep
    • &
    • Excercising
  17. Membrane in which sterocilia for hearing are embedded?
    Organ of corti
  18. Part held by stapedius to protect ear from loud sounds?
    Typmanic Membrane
  19. WHat contains endolymph?
    Scala Media or aka Cochlear Duct
  20. What contains perilymph?
    Scala Vestibuli  & Scala Tympani
  21. Know steps for visual pathway & where synapses are:
  22. Difference & Treatment for DIabetes Type 1 suffering from too little insuling or a type 1 diabetic suffering from too much insulin
  23. The utricle is....
    What type of organ?
    Activated when.....
    Can sense....
    • * An otolith organ
    • * Activated when person bends head to look at
    • * ground or when person starts to walk.
    • *Can sense both static and dynamic equilibrium
  24. The loudness of a sound determines......
    How high or low a sound is
  25. High and low frequencies sounds are discriminated chiefly by....
    Low frequencies deflecting the basilar membrane at a greater  distance from the oval window near the hellcotremma.
  26. Umami taste represents stimuli caused by....
  27. Which best describes the vision of a person with uncorrected myopia?
    The eyeball is too long; near objects focus on the retina when ciliary muscle is relaxed
  28. The loudness of a sound.......
    Determines how high or low a sound is
  29. Which of the following abnormalities could give rise to sensorineural deafness?
    Disease or injury in the organ of corti
  30. The ossicular system of the ear is in direct....
    contact with the tympanic membrane and the round window
  31. Rotational head movement when moving nodding ones head as in saying yes is best detected by the......
    Superior Semicircular Canal
  32. How much louder is a 40 decibel sound than a 10 dB one?
    1000 times
  33. What is the correct for sound waves to go?
    • Pinna
    • External Auditory Meatus
    • Tym. Membrane
    • Malleus
    • Incus
    • Stapedius
    • Oval Window
    • Scala Vestibuli
    • Vestibular Membrane
    • Coclear Duct
    • Basilar Membrane
  34. In the hearing and equilibrium lab, you learned that....
    Standing on one foot with ones eyes closed was easier than when the eyes are open shoing that the eyes have little effect in keeping ones balance.
  35. When sensory units have large receptive fields, the acuity of perception is _______
  36. Describe phototransduction process and photoreceptor activity in the light as it relates to oncenter bipolar cells. Include what is going on inside rod and what effect it has on bipolar neuron.
  37. Parasympathetic system......
    Slows down __ _ but stimulates ___ __ ___
    NT 4rm all preganglionic fibers bind to __ __
    It has no effect on most.......
    Slows down HR but stimulates salivary gland secretion

    NT 4rm all preganglionic fibers bind to nic rec

    Part of it originates in the brain and part of it in sacral region in spinal cord.

    It has no effect on most smooth muscle of vessels but can dilate vessels to the digestive tract,
  38. Characterisitcs of endocrine system:
    Can produce an effect that involves...
    Releases chem messengers.....
    It produces a slower response....
    Particularly Involved in....
    • Involves more than 1 organ or tissue at a time
    • Chem mess. called hormones into blood
    • Slower response to body changes than NS

    Involved in growth and functioning on the reproductive system
  39. Atropine is a drug that blocks the parasympathetic nerve effects and is used often durring surgery to....
    Decrease Mucous Secretion
  40. At very low concentrations, epinephrine causes an artery to Vasodilate. At higher concentrations epinephrine causes the same artery to constrict. How can these effects be explained?
    There are two types of Epinephrine receptors with different affinities for epinephrine that use two different second messenger systems.
  41. When looking at the endocrine system.....
    99% of steroids are bound to proteins in plasma and are not active
  42. Lipophillic hormones bind....
    Bind to receptors inside the cytoplasm of the nucleus
  43. Prostaglandin E
    Regulates RBC deformability, platlets aggression, and can induce a fever.
  44. An antagonist at a receptor......
    Blocks the normal ligand from triggering the response.
  45. Draw accomodated and unaccomodated eye with its lens . THen show how a hypertropic eue sees things at a distance/ What type of lens is ised to correct this vision?
  46. Several Types of Ganglion cells:
    What are they?
    What do they do?
    • P-type Ganglion: Color/Texture
    • M-type Ganglion: Location/Movement
    • One other type used in circadium rhythem: RGC
  47. TSH Target?
    Follicular cell of the thyroid
  48. PRL stimulates?
    Milk production
  49. MSH stimulates
    Gametes Production
  50. The part of the rhodopsin that actually captures the photon is called?
  51. Cold receptors in skin match up with
  52. Tissue damage best matches up with
  53. Cochlea best matches up with
  54. Olfactory Mucosa best matches up with
  55. Light is aform of electromagnetic radiation composed of particle like individual packets of energy called ______ that travel in wavelike fashion.
  56. _____ is the medical term for ringing of the ears
  57. _____ is a term that means that the cornea or lens does not have a perfect curvature in all planes so an image is distorted in that area.
  58. Beta blockers ______ HR which helps lower BP
    Inhibits/slows down
  59. Normal, jerky eye movement is called
    Saccadic Eye movement
  60. The Saccule an Utricle are called?
    Gelationous part of the saccule is called?
    * Otolith organs and Maculae

    • * gelatinous mass called the otolithic membrane containing concretions
    • of calcium carbonate
  61. Gonadotrophs secrete two types of hormones. What are they?
    What do they do?
    What are they stimulated with?
    • FSH (promotes production of gametes & secretion of gonadal hormones)
    • &
    • LH (females stimulates ovulation and in males stimulates cells secreting androgens)

    Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) of hypothalamic origin.
  62. What secretes GH?
    What does it do?
    GH release regulated by?
    Somatotrophs, promotes cell growth in all body.

    is regulated by hormone Somatostatin & Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) of hypothalamic origin.
  63. Lactotrophs Secreted what hormone?
    Regulated by?
    • Secrete hormone PRL
    • Regulated by dopamine
  64. Thyrotrophs Produce?
    Regulated by?
    • TSH
    • Thyrotropin
  65. corticotrophs release?
  66. Myelin
  67. Glycemic Index
    Measure of the effects of carbs on blood sugar
  68. What is considered to be LOW on the GI index?

    • Low = 55 or less
    • Moderate = 56-69
    • High = 70 or higher
  69. What is normal blood sugar level?
    75-115 mg/dL
  70. EAt -> Feedforward system -> GIP released -> beta cells -> Insulin
  71. Hormone made by Pituitary:
    What happens?
    TSH leaves pituitary and goes into blood stream

    • Stimulates Thyroid gland to make
    • Thyroxin T4 & Triiodotryonine T3
    • (Which Upregulate/Downregulate the entire body)

    ACTH -> acts on adrenal cortex (top of kidneys) and regulates Adrenal glands make make cortisol (regulates glucose metabolism/BP) ALdosterone s (balance salt/water balance) &Anderogens

    • LH & FSH: Act on Gonads
    • Male Testes (produce sperm)
    • Female (Ovaries)

    • ANT pituitary:
    • GH: Act on optimal growth for long bones

    • PRL Prolactin:
    • Lactation
    Endocrine =
    • Endocrine = Far
    • Paracrine = Local
    • Autocrine = Itself
  73. How does pituitary know to stop making TSH?
    Like thermostat, it can sense the levels of thyroid hormones.
  74. Pancreas:
    Inside = Isletss of longerhons:
    What do they do?
    Make endocrine hormones like insulin and glucagon
  75. Glucose gets delivered to cells via   ______ what does it provide cells with?
    In most cell it needs hormone to assist in going inside cell, what is it?

    The surface of cells have Insulin receptors.
    • Bloodstream
    • Insulin
  76. If pancreas is not producing _______ then there is no insulin to attach to _____ _____ which mean no energy for cell = ________

    How can u fix this?
    Insulin - Insulin Receptors - Type 1 Diabetes

    Inject Insulin so they can attach to receptors
  77. WHen receptors become desensitized to Insulin what is that a sign of?
    What happens?
    How can u fix this?
    • Type 2 Diabetes
    • Glucose will not enter cell / No energy

    Uptake insulin because it takes more to have effect of desesitized receptor
  78. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic are part of the?
    What subsection is Sympathetic?
    • PNS
    • Visceral Motor Division
  79. Where do Sympathetic fibers originate?
    Location of Ganglia?

    Where do Parasympathetic fibers originate?
    Location of Ganglia
    • Sym = Thorocolumbar region of spinal cord
    • Short Preganglionic Fibers
    • Ganglia = Close to spinal cord

    • Para = Brain & Sacral Spinal Cord
    • Long/Short Preganglionic Fibers
    • In visceral effector organs
  80. Parasympathetic and Sympathetics are part of what major sys?

    Para = T1 - L1
    Peripheral Nervous System
  81. Ganglion
    Where pre and post ganglion fibers synapse and release NT.
  82. Somatotrophs release?
    What is its target organ?
    • GH
    • Target organ = Body cells
  83. Lactotrophs release?
    What is its target organ?
    • PRL
    • Target Organ Breast
  84. Corticolypotrophs release?
    What are the target organ?
    • ACTH & MSH
    • Target Organ: Adrenal Cortex
  85. GOnadotrophs secrete?
    Target Organ?
    • FSH & LH
    • Target organs: Gonads
  86. List everything insulin does:
    • Protein SYnthesis
    • Lipogenesis
    • Tells liver to store extra sugar.
  87. 3 Prostoglandin Groups:

    What do they do?
    • PGA: Decreases BP & regional flow of heart & kidneys
    • PGE: Regulates RBC abnormalities/ Induces fever
    • PGF: Induces labor - uterine contraction / Peristalsys
  88. Glucagon:
    Breaks down...
    • Raises BP
    • Tells liver to make glucose
    • Glycogen break down and produces keytones from keytoacids
  89. Pulsatile contraction:
    Hormones are produced in bursts so we dont adapt and down regulate
  90. Basopressin aka ADH
    Produced by?
    Target Organs?
    Produced by Posterior Pituitary

    • Oxytocin: Uterues contraction, milklet down, Brain endorphans.

    Basopressin aka ADH: smooth cells, kidneys retain water
  91. Alpha cells secrete .....
    Beta cells of pancreas secrete....
    • Alpha secrete Glucagon
    • Beta cells of pancreas secrete insulin
  92. Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
    Type 1: ____ cells dont work and are destroyed by persons immune system.

    Type 2: desensitization to receptors
  93. What are 3 classes of hormones?
    Where are they made/derived from?
    • Amines: Thyr hormon derived from tyrosine/tryptophan
    • Peptides:(short-halftime) Made on ribosomes

    Steroids:Made from choles. made in mitoch & SER
  94. Permissive Hormone
    • Permissive work individually
    • Synergism work together for a bigger A.P
  95. What example of an Antagonist comes to mind?
    Insulin in glucagon
  96. Where are receptors for lipophobic located?
    Where are receptors for lipophilic located?
    Outside cell membrane?
  97. What does enzyme Aromatase do?
    Converts Testosterone to Estrogen
  98. List Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
    Target Organs?
    • GH-Body Cells
    • PRL-Breast
    • ACTH-Adrenal Cortex
    • MSH-
    • TSH-Thyroid Gland
    • FSH- Gonads
    • LH- Ovulation
  99. What releases Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
    What secretes them/ List them:
    Target Organs?
    • Somatotrophs - GH-Body Cells
    • Lactotrophs - PRL-Breast
    • Corticolypotrophs - ACTH-Adrenal Cortex
    •                             ^MSH-
    • TSH-Thyroid Gland
    • Gonadotrophs - FSH- Gonads
    • LH- Ovulation
  100. What are the sugar control hormones?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon           THESE TWO ARE MAIN ONES

    • Cortisol
    • Epinephrine
    • GH
  101. Thyroid Hormone:
    t3 & t4 are made up of...
    Stimulated by ____ from ANT PIT
    • Iodine
    • TSH
  102. Calcium control hormones:
    • Parathyroid Hormone
    • Calcitonin
    • Vitamin D