Drugs affecting the cardiovascular system

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
206087
Filename:
Drugs affecting the cardiovascular system
Updated:
2013-03-09 19:33:07
Tags:
pharmacology heart
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Description:
pharmacology of the cardiovascular system
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  1. Describe the renin-angiotensin system
    • -Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
    • -ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
    • -which leads to an increase in blood pressure and cardiac output
  2. HYDRALAZINE
    • -Vasodilator
    • -Decrease in oxygen demand on the heart
    • -decrease preload and afterload
    • -increased cardiac output
    • side effects: reflex tachycardia, headache, nausea, sweating
  3. HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE
    • -Diuretic (thiazide)
    • -Decreased blood volume
    • -Decreased cardiac workload = increase in cardiac output
    • -Also used to reduce edema
    • -causes decrease in K+ levels
  4. METOPROLOL (ex: ATENOLOL)
    • -Beta blocker
    • -Decrease heart rate
    • -Inhibits release of renin, decrease BP and cardiac output
  5. LOSARTAN
    • -Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARBs)
    • -Decrease preload & afterload
    • -Does not increase bradykinin
    • -increased volume of distribution
    • -Highly plasma bound 
    • -Similar to ACE inhibitors except for cough
  6. HYDRALAZINE
    • -Direct vasodilator
    • -heart does not have to work as hard
  7. ENALAPRIL
    • -ACE inhibitor
    • -Decrease preload & afterload (Increase CO)
    • -Dilation of veins (decrease peripheral edema)
    • -Food = decrease absorption
    • -most are prodrugs
    • Side effects: COUGH, hyperkalemia, angioedema, renal insufficiency, postural hypotension
  8. DIGOXIN
    • -Inhibits Na+/Kexchange by Na+/KATPase
    • -increase Na+ outside the cell
    • -decrease Na+/Ca2+ exchange so increase Ca2+ inside the cell
    • -muscle contraction, increased CO
  9. Heart failure
    • -inability of ventricles to pump enough blood to meet body's needs
    • -a result of underlying disorders
    • -drug therapy try to relieve symptoms; slow progression of disease & prolong lives

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