Parasite Lab#2 (Set 5)

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meganm88
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Parasite Lab#2 (Set 5)
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2013-03-13 19:35:15
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Set #5
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  1. Phylum Ciliophora
       Trichodinid ciliate
    Gillichthys mirabilis
    • Ectoparasites that aparsite molluscs and fishes
    • gill arches
    • note denticle x-section
  2. Phylum Ciliophora
       Ichthiophthirius multififulis
    on Molly fish
    • Note U-shaped macronucleus and smaller micronucleus
    • Trophozoite
    • Contractile vacuoles
  3. Phylum Ciliophora
    • Protozoans that have cilia at at least one stage of the life cycle
    • type types of nuclei- macro and micronucleus
    • hosts are infected by motile tomites- attach to host and become trophozoites (feeding and growing stage)
  4. Phylum Apicoplexa
    • Similar lifecycles and produce infective sporozoites
    • entirely parasitic
    • have apical complex
    • terminal polar ring and associated structures including the conoid, rhoptires, and micronemes
    • all LC begin with entrance of sporozoites into the host (contained in oocysts)
    • Sporozoites are formed by sporogony (asexual division of a zygote)
  5. Phylum Apicomplexa
    Generalized gregarine LC
    Sporozoite (in host) > Trophozoite > Gamont > SYZYGY > Gametocyst (excreted by hosts) > GAMOGONY > Zygote (2N) in Oocyst (many oocysts in gametocyst) > SPOROGONY > Sporozoites in Oocyst (excreted by host) > ingested by host-- cycle continues
  6. Phylum Apicomplexa
    Generalized gregarine LC
    Sporozoite > Trophozoite > Schizont > SCHIZOGONY (*agam) > Merozoite (can revert back to trophozoite) > Gamont > GAMOGONY (gamic) > Microgametes, Macrogametes > Zygote > Sporong (in feces) > SPOROGONY > Spores > Ingestion --- cycle repeates
  7. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Coccideans
       Order Eucoccidia
        Family Eimeridae
        Eimeria tenella
    Poultry
    • Schizogony within glandular host cells
    • 1: Sporozoit. 2: Trophozoit in Darmepithelzelle. 3: Schizont. 4:
    • Merozoiten. 5: Freier Merozoit. 6: Makrogametozyt. 7: Makrogamet. 8:
    • Ruhestadium in intraepithelialen Lymphozyten. 9: Mikrogametozyt. 10:
    • Mikrogameten. 11: Zygote. 12: intrazellulärer Sporont. 13:
    • Ausgeschiedener Sporont innerhalb der Oozyste. 14: Sporoblasten
    • innerhalb der Oozyste. 15: Oozyste mit Sporozysten
  8. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Coccideans
       Order Eucoccidia
        Family Eimeridae
        Eimeria tenella
    Poultry


  9. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Coccideans
       Order Eucoccidia
        Toxoplasma gondii
    Mouse
    • Zoitocyst ^
    • macrogamont,
    • producing macrogametes
    • Tacyzoites
    • Tachyzoites will encyst in host tissue to become bradyzoites
  10. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Order Euchoccidis
       Sarcocystis
    • zoitocyst from the
    • skeletal muscle of a buffalo

    Sarcocyst from muscle of IH- filled with infective bradyzoites
  11. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccideans
       Order Piroplasmida
        Babesia bigemani

    Note pear shaped parasites in RBC
  12. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Order Eucoccidea
       Haemogregarina
    Fish, amphibians, reptiles
    • trophozoites
    • inside amphibian red blood cells
    • Note distinctive trophozoite in infected cells - trophs displace the host cell nucleus to the cell's margin
    • Schizogony occurs in the bone marrow - only trophs and gamonts are found in peripheral circulation
  13. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Aggegata sp.
    • Life cycle is indirect with decapod crustaceans serving as hosts to
    • stages that reproduce only asexually- Sexual reproduction occurs in the cephalopod host- Prevalence in wild octopus populations is 100%, and pathology is
    • minimal- When octopuses are maintained for aquaculture, infection with
    • Agreggata is associated with cell hypertrophy and ulceration in
    • infected tissue as well as weight loss and behavioral changes
  14. Phylum Sarcomastigophora (Flagellates)
      Order Opalinida
        Opalina
  15. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Coccidea
        Order Haemosporida
    • Plasmodium vivax
    • P. falciparum
    • P. malariae
    • P. ovale
    • P. lophurae
  16. -Obligate indirect lifecycles with invert and vert hosts
    - Insect micropredators serve as vectors
    -Plasmodium causes increased feeding rates in mosquitoes
    Describe Order Haemosporida
  17. -Plasmoidum is causative agent of malaria in mammals
    - infections are characterized by prominent erythrocytic stage of asexual reproduction in the vertebrate host
    -Family Cuculidae are vectors for parasite- Anopheles
    Describe Plasmodium
  18. - Schizogony occurs in the vertebrate host- pimarily in erythrocytes
    -Gamogony is initated in vert host with the production of macro and microgametes
    -Gametocytes are ingested with blood meal
    -Zygote formation and sporogony occur extracelularly in the invert host
    -Sporozoites localize in salivary glands where they can be easily transferred
    - Gamogony is initiated in vert host but completed in invert host- invert host is DH
    - females are micropredators- males are nectar feeders
    - Vert host is infected by sporozoites from the bite and initiates intracellular infection 
    -Primary infection is exoerythrocytic and located in parynchema of the liver
    - after enters liver parasite becomes a trophozoite and beings to grow and feed on cytoplasm
    - When parasite is mature, the cell becomes a schizont and begins producing merozoites
    - merozoites are released into the blood stream to initiate erythrocytic stage
    -each merozoite invades erythrocyte and become a trophozoite- feeding and growing within the infected red blood cell- ring trophs (cytoplasm- ring, nucleus- jewel, open portion is food vacuole))
    - as troph matures, ring fades but red spots of hemazoin, from digestion of hemoglobin, being to appear)
    - at maturity, the parasite becomes a schizont and begins to replicate within the RBC
    - Cycles of schizogony are synchronized in human Plasmodium resulting in simultaneous release of many merozoites into the bloodstream- cause fever and chills
    -After several cycles of schizogony, some merozoites will develop into gamonts following invasion of an erythrocyte
    -macro and microgametes develop intracellularly
    -gamonts in peripheral circulation are ingested by mosquito
    - gamogony continues in the gut of the mosquito
    -gamonts will develop into gametes only in compatible spp. of mosquitoes
    - In gut, nuclues of microgamont multiples resulting in 4-8 long, slender microgametes
    -exflagellation- release of flagellated microgametes
    -micro and macrogametes fuse and form a motile zygote- the ookinete
    - migrates though gut epitherlum and encysts outside of gut wall
    - resulting oocysts protrude into the haemocoel from gut wall
    LC of Plasmodium
  19. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax oocyst
  20. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax
    • North Africa/Asia
    • Tertian - 48 hrs
    • Relapse- dormant in liver cells
    • Schuffner's dots
  21. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium ovale
    • Old world/tropics
    • Mild
    • 48 Hrs
  22. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax sporozoites
    • In salivary glands
    • After sporogony in oocyst along gut wall of mosquito, rupture of oocyst release 1000s of sprozoites and migrate to salivary glands
  23. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax schizonts
    • Early schizont ^

    Late Schizont
  24. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium malariae gametocytes
    • infective to the DH (Mosquito)
  25. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium falciparum
    • Cerebral malaria
    • 50% of all causes
    • Maurer's clefts- small ring trophs
    • High parasitemia
  26. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium falciparum early ring trophs
    • some are doubly infected
    • notice high parasetemia (high number of parasitized cells)
  27. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium malariae
    • Old/New world
    • 7% of cases
    • Low parasitimea
    • Long recrudescence (dormant in RBC)
    • 72 hours
  28. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax shizonts
    • mature ^
    • immature ^
  29. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium ovale gametocyte
  30. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium lopurae gametocyte
    • exflagellated microgamete in blood meal from mosquito gut
    • hihg amount of hosts are parasitized
  31. Sickle Cell Anemia
    Heterozygous individuals
  32. Plasmodium LC
    • schizogony- IH
    • Gamogony - IH >DH
    • Sprogony- DH
  33. Amoebas
  34. Kinetoplastids
  35. Trpanosoma LC

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