Parasite Lab#2 (Set 5)

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  1. Phylum Ciliophora
       Trichodinid ciliate
    Gillichthys mirabilis
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    • Ectoparasites that aparsite molluscs and fishes
    • gill arches
    • note denticle x-section
  2. Phylum Ciliophora
       Ichthiophthirius multififulis
    on Molly fish
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    • Note U-shaped macronucleus and smaller micronucleus
    • Trophozoite
    • Contractile vacuoles
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  3. Phylum Ciliophora
    • Protozoans that have cilia at at least one stage of the life cycle
    • type types of nuclei- macro and micronucleus
    • hosts are infected by motile tomites- attach to host and become trophozoites (feeding and growing stage)
  4. Phylum Apicoplexa
    • Similar lifecycles and produce infective sporozoites
    • entirely parasitic
    • have apical complex
    • terminal polar ring and associated structures including the conoid, rhoptires, and micronemes
    • all LC begin with entrance of sporozoites into the host (contained in oocysts)
    • Sporozoites are formed by sporogony (asexual division of a zygote)
  5. Phylum Apicomplexa
    Generalized gregarine LC
    Sporozoite (in host) > Trophozoite > Gamont > SYZYGY > Gametocyst (excreted by hosts) > GAMOGONY > Zygote (2N) in Oocyst (many oocysts in gametocyst) > SPOROGONY > Sporozoites in Oocyst (excreted by host) > ingested by host-- cycle continues
  6. Phylum Apicomplexa
    Generalized gregarine LC
    Sporozoite > Trophozoite > Schizont > SCHIZOGONY (*agam) > Merozoite (can revert back to trophozoite) > Gamont > GAMOGONY (gamic) > Microgametes, Macrogametes > Zygote > Sporong (in feces) > SPOROGONY > Spores > Ingestion --- cycle repeates
  7. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Coccideans
       Order Eucoccidia
        Family Eimeridae
        Eimeria tenella
    Poultry
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    • Schizogony within glandular host cells
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    • 1: Sporozoit. 2: Trophozoit in Darmepithelzelle. 3: Schizont. 4:
    • Merozoiten. 5: Freier Merozoit. 6: Makrogametozyt. 7: Makrogamet. 8:
    • Ruhestadium in intraepithelialen Lymphozyten. 9: Mikrogametozyt. 10:
    • Mikrogameten. 11: Zygote. 12: intrazellulärer Sporont. 13:
    • Ausgeschiedener Sporont innerhalb der Oozyste. 14: Sporoblasten
    • innerhalb der Oozyste. 15: Oozyste mit Sporozysten
  8. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Coccideans
       Order Eucoccidia
        Family Eimeridae
        Eimeria tenella
    Poultry
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  9. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Coccideans
       Order Eucoccidia
        Toxoplasma gondii
    Mouse
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    • Zoitocyst ^
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    • macrogamont,
    • producing macrogametes
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    • Tacyzoites
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    • Tachyzoites will encyst in host tissue to become bradyzoites
  10. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Order Euchoccidis
       Sarcocystis
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    • zoitocyst from the
    • skeletal muscle of a buffalo
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    Sarcocyst from muscle of IH- filled with infective bradyzoites
  11. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccideans
       Order Piroplasmida
        Babesia bigemani
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    Note pear shaped parasites in RBC
  12. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Order Eucoccidea
       Haemogregarina
    Fish, amphibians, reptiles
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    • inside amphibian red blood cells
    • Note distinctive trophozoite in infected cells - trophs displace the host cell nucleus to the cell's margin
    • Schizogony occurs in the bone marrow - only trophs and gamonts are found in peripheral circulation
  13. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Aggegata sp.
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    • Life cycle is indirect with decapod crustaceans serving as hosts to
    • stages that reproduce only asexually- Sexual reproduction occurs in the cephalopod host- Prevalence in wild octopus populations is 100%, and pathology is
    • minimal- When octopuses are maintained for aquaculture, infection with
    • Agreggata is associated with cell hypertrophy and ulceration in
    • infected tissue as well as weight loss and behavioral changes
  14. Phylum Sarcomastigophora (Flagellates)
      Order Opalinida
        Opalina
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  15. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Coccidea
        Order Haemosporida
    • Plasmodium vivax
    • P. falciparum
    • P. malariae
    • P. ovale
    • P. lophurae
  16. -Obligate indirect lifecycles with invert and vert hosts
    - Insect micropredators serve as vectors
    -Plasmodium causes increased feeding rates in mosquitoes
    Describe Order Haemosporida
  17. -Plasmoidum is causative agent of malaria in mammals
    - infections are characterized by prominent erythrocytic stage of asexual reproduction in the vertebrate host
    -Family Cuculidae are vectors for parasite- Anopheles
    Describe Plasmodium
  18. - Schizogony occurs in the vertebrate host- pimarily in erythrocytes
    -Gamogony is initated in vert host with the production of macro and microgametes
    -Gametocytes are ingested with blood meal
    -Zygote formation and sporogony occur extracelularly in the invert host
    -Sporozoites localize in salivary glands where they can be easily transferred
    - Gamogony is initiated in vert host but completed in invert host- invert host is DH
    - females are micropredators- males are nectar feeders
    - Vert host is infected by sporozoites from the bite and initiates intracellular infection 
    -Primary infection is exoerythrocytic and located in parynchema of the liver
    - after enters liver parasite becomes a trophozoite and beings to grow and feed on cytoplasm
    - When parasite is mature, the cell becomes a schizont and begins producing merozoites
    - merozoites are released into the blood stream to initiate erythrocytic stage
    -each merozoite invades erythrocyte and become a trophozoite- feeding and growing within the infected red blood cell- ring trophs (cytoplasm- ring, nucleus- jewel, open portion is food vacuole))
    - as troph matures, ring fades but red spots of hemazoin, from digestion of hemoglobin, being to appear)
    - at maturity, the parasite becomes a schizont and begins to replicate within the RBC
    - Cycles of schizogony are synchronized in human Plasmodium resulting in simultaneous release of many merozoites into the bloodstream- cause fever and chills
    -After several cycles of schizogony, some merozoites will develop into gamonts following invasion of an erythrocyte
    -macro and microgametes develop intracellularly
    -gamonts in peripheral circulation are ingested by mosquito
    - gamogony continues in the gut of the mosquito
    -gamonts will develop into gametes only in compatible spp. of mosquitoes
    - In gut, nuclues of microgamont multiples resulting in 4-8 long, slender microgametes
    -exflagellation- release of flagellated microgametes
    -micro and macrogametes fuse and form a motile zygote- the ookinete
    - migrates though gut epitherlum and encysts outside of gut wall
    - resulting oocysts protrude into the haemocoel from gut wall
    LC of Plasmodium
  19. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax oocyst
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  20. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax
    • North Africa/Asia
    • Tertian - 48 hrs
    • Relapse- dormant in liver cells
    • Schuffner's dots
  21. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium ovale
    • Old world/tropics
    • Mild
    • 48 Hrs
  22. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax sporozoites
    • In salivary glands
    • After sporogony in oocyst along gut wall of mosquito, rupture of oocyst release 1000s of sprozoites and migrate to salivary glands
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  23. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax schizonts
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    • Early schizont ^
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    Late Schizont
  24. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium malariae gametocytes
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    • infective to the DH (Mosquito)
  25. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium falciparum
    • Cerebral malaria
    • 50% of all causes
    • Maurer's clefts- small ring trophs
    • High parasitemia
  26. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium falciparum early ring trophs
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    • some are doubly infected
    • notice high parasetemia (high number of parasitized cells)
  27. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium malariae
    • Old/New world
    • 7% of cases
    • Low parasitimea
    • Long recrudescence (dormant in RBC)
    • 72 hours
  28. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium vivax shizonts
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    • mature ^
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    • immature ^
  29. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium ovale gametocyte
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  30. Phylum Apicomplexa
      Class Coccidea
       Order Haemosporida
         Plasmodium lopurae gametocyte
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    • exflagellated microgamete in blood meal from mosquito gut
    • hihg amount of hosts are parasitized
  31. Sickle Cell Anemia
    Heterozygous individuals
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  32. Plasmodium LC
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    • schizogony- IH
    • Gamogony - IH >DH
    • Sprogony- DH
  33. Amoebas
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  34. Kinetoplastids
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  35. Trpanosoma LC
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Author:
meganm88
ID:
206104
Card Set:
Parasite Lab#2 (Set 5)
Updated:
2013-03-13 23:35:15
Tags:
Review
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Description:
Set #5
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