Patient Care Chapter 11

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jaxkaty5437
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206107
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Patient Care Chapter 11
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2013-03-10 21:45:46
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Patient Care Radiology
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Patient Care Chapter 11
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  1. What is sinus bradycardia?
    an abnormally slow heartbeat
  2. What is the normal wave form that demonstrates the normal heart rate called?
    sinus rhythm
  3. What is this wave pattern called?

    normal sinus rhythm
  4. What is an abnormally slow heart rate(<60bpm) called?
    bradycardia

  5. What is this heart rhythm?

    sinus bradycardia

    (slow heart rate <60 bpm)
  6. A ventricular depolarization that occurs earlier than expected. It appears on the electrocardiogram as an early, wide QRS complex without a preceding related P wave. They may be idiopathic or caused by stress,
    electrolyte imbalance, ischemia, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, ventricular by enlargement,
    or a toxic reaction to drugs. They may occur occasionally, in a regular pattern, or as several in sequence. Occasional they are not clinically significant in healthy individuals, but they may produce decreased cardiac output in people with heart disease. If these happen  frequently,  they may be a precursor of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. What is this abnormal heart rhythm called?
  7. What is the formulas to convert a temperature from Fahrenheit to Celsius and Celsius to Fahrenheit?
    • 1)C=F-32÷1.8
    • 2)F=(Cx1.8)+32

    • *EXAMPLES:
    • 1)Convert  34° C  to F     F=(34x
    • 34° C =93.2° F

    • 2)Convert 84° F to C
    • ?C=(84-32)÷1.8
    • 84° F=28.88° C
  8. If allowed to  progress  PVC's may initiate _____ _______. It is one of the most common causes of sudden death. Whether or not a pule is detected, a ______ MUST be called.
    • ventricular fibrillation(V-fib)-the heart quivers or fibrillates in and loses the ability to contract effectively.
    • CODE
  9. What does the EKG show?
    ventricular fibrillation(V-fib)-the heart quivers or fibrillates in and loses the ability to contract effectively.f allowed to  progress  PVC's may initiate ventricular fibrillation. It is one of the most common causes of sudden death. Whether or not a pule is detected, a code must be called. A single shock from the defibrillator followed by CPR and at least 1ml of epinephrine. The epinephrine   causes vasoconstriction, increasing coronary perfusion pressure and allowing more blood to reach the heart and enhances the contractile state of the heart and stimulates spontaneous contractions.
  10. _________ _____results from continuous and irregular reentry of electrical pulses back into the atria.Because these pulses are so rapid and continuous,they spur a rapid and irregular ventricular response. In a young patients, it may be caused by rheumatic mitral valve disease. It is more common in older patients in whom arteriosclerostic heart disease is the major cause.
  11. Vital signs include measurements of ____, _______, _________, and _______.
    blood pressure, temperature, pulse rate, and  respiratory rate
  12. A baseline assessment of the patient current status involves what 4 things(Hint-NOT VITAL SIGNS)
    • 1)checking the chart
    • 2)"eyeballing the patient"
    • 3)determining the level of conciousness
    • 4)noting whether breathing seems normal or not
  13. Common laboratory studies include________, __________, and________.
    • 1)Complete blood counts(CBC)
    • 2)Blood clotting measurements(PT, PTT, Heparin Xa assay, D-dimer(for pulmonary embolism)
    • 3)Blood chemistry:(Glucose,Cholesterol{HDH?LDL},BUN&Creatinine{kidney function}Serum Bilirubin{liver function}
  14. What is a serum bilirubin test is used to measure?
    conjugated hemoglobin content in blood(measures liver function)
  15. A normal heart rate for an adult is:_____________
    60-100 bpm
  16. The term tachycardia to what?
    a rapid heart rate
  17. What is the instrument used to monitor both the pulse and the oxygen saturation in the blood
    pulse oximeter
  18. the clinical term for a bruise
    • Ecchymosis is the clinical term for a bruise. Ecchymosis occurs when there is by bleeding into the layers of the SKIN,causing discoloration and sometimes swelling and discomfort. The injured area typically undergoes several, and sometimes vivid, color changes during the stages of HEALING.
    • Ecchymosis usually results from trauma to the tissue, such as a blow. Ecchymosis may also occur as a symptom of bleeding disorders, LEUKEMIA, by LIVER disease,and other health conditions. Ecchymosis that develops without known trauma warrants a doctor’s evaluation to determine the underlying cause.
  19. spontaneous hemorrhages often seen in older patients
    • purpura
  20. A collection of blood that resembles a tumor
    • hematoma
  21. A copious effusion of blood in a tissue as seen in a stroke
    apoplexy
  22. A localized area of necrosis resulting from circulatory insufficiency.(heart, kidneys, lungs, brain)
    • Infarction
  23. An abnormal collection of fluid within tissue spaces.
    • edema
  24. Where are the probes placed for an EKG(ECG)?
    • 2 on each side of the sternum at the level of the 2nd intercostal space
    • 1 on the side of the chest  at the level of 6th or 7th intercostal space
  25. Difficulty breathing lying down
    orthopnea
  26. Fever(pyrexia or hyperthermia) is considered a oral temperature of ______ or higher.
    100.4 F

    (100.4-32)/1.8= 38C
  27. Normal temperature range is______
    96.8-99.8 F  (+.5-1 for rectal, or -.5-1 axial)
  28. What percentage of blood is plasma?
    55%
  29. What makes up the majority of the cells in the blood?
    red blood cells
  30. Red blood cells carry ____ to the cells and carry away ____ _____.
    oxygen, waste gases
  31. Normal red blood cell counts for
    men:_____
    women:________
    children:__________
    • women:4-5.5 million per mm3
    • men: 4.5-6 million per mm3
    • children: 5-6.5 million per mm3
  32. Lifespan of a red blood cell is _______ days.
    120
  33. Each red blood cell is about_____hemoglobin by volume. It's function is to carry oxygen from the lungs  and carbon dioxide back to the lungs
    1/3
  34. Normal hemoglobin levels are:
    women:_____
    men:_______
    children:______
    • women: 12-16 grams per 100 ml
    • men: 14-18 grams per 100 ml
    • newborns: 14-20 grams per 100 ml
  35. The percentage of red blood cells is called the _____To be measure the whole blood sample has to be centrifuged. Normal range for men is____, and women________.
    • hematocrit
    • women: 36-46%
    • men: 42-52%
  36. Normal white blood cell values are:______. Lifespan is ____days except for lymphocytes which live ______days.
    • 5000-10,000 mm3
    • 10 except lymphocytes live 100 days
  37. WBC's develop from stem cells in the ______, but some types complete their maturation elsewhere in the body.
    red bone marrow
  38. THE LOWDOWN ON NUMBERS FOR BLOOD CELLS:
    hematocrit(% of red blood cells)
    women: 36-46%
    men: 42-52%

    white blood cells
    5000-10,000 mm3
    life span is 10 days (except for)
    lymphocytes live 100 days

    Normal hemoglobin levels:
    women: 12-16 grams per 100 ml
    men: 14-18 grams per 100 ml
    newborns: 14-20 grams per 100 ml

    Normal red blood cell counts for
    women:4-5.5 million per mm3
    men: 4.5-6 million per mm3
    children: 5-6.5 million per mm3

    What percentage of blood is plasma?
    55%

    Platelets
    130,000-360,000 per mm3
    lifespan 8-11 days

    Normal Systolic 95-140 mm Hg
    Dystolic 60-80 mm Hg




  39. Normal breathing is ___-____breaths per minute. Less than___bpm is ____, and more than _____bpm is ______.
    • 12-20
    • <12=bradypnea
    • >20=tachypnea
  40. Normal pulse is _____to _____ beats per minute
    • 60-80
    • http://youtu.be/lvZ1bYGxzSI
    • (song at 60 bpm)  :)

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