Computers midterm

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XQWCat
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Computers midterm
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2013-03-10 01:10:37
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Computers midterm terms
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  1. what does it mean to be computer literate?
    being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitation and use them efficiently. 
  2. what is data mining
    the process by which great amounts of data are analyzed and investigated.  The objective is to spot trends or significant patterns that would otherwise not be obvious. 
  3. What is bluetooth technology, and an example?
    A type of wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances.  Often used to connect peripherals (printers and keyboards to computers or headsets to cell phones)
  4. What is the digital divide and give an example. 
    The discrepancy between those who have access to the opportunities and knowledge that computers and the internet offer and those who do not.  Poorer families who can't afford the internet do not gain skills that would give them upward mobility. 
  5. What is PDA?
    A personal digital/data assistant, any small mobile hand-held device that provides computing and information storage and retrieval capabilities for personal or business use, often for keeping schedule calendars and address book information handy. 
  6. Compare IT and software
    • IT is information technology, a field of study focused on managing and processing information and the automatic retrieval of information. 
    • Software is the set of computer programs or instructions that tells the computer what to do and enables it to perform different tasks. 
  7. How does being computer literate help you deal with the challenges associated with technology? 
    Knowing what computers can and can't do prevents there BEING challenges with technology, in many ways.  It also helps to fix any problems that may arise.  Familiarity with a subject makes it easier to handle. 
  8. What is computer forensics?  Can you give an example of it? 
    • Computer forensics is the application of computer systems and techniques to gather potential legal evidence; a law enforcement specialty used to fight high-tech crime. 
    • Looking at the past emails or browsing history of a suspect can help to find evidence leading to a committed crime. 
  9. What are a computer's four major functions?
    • Input (gathers data)
    • Process (manipulates, calculates or organizes data into information)
    • Output (displays data and information in a form suitable for the user)
    • Storage (saves data and information for later use)
  10. What is the difference between data and information?
    • Data is a representation of a fact, figure or idea (an individual piece, number, picture, etc.)
    • Information is data that has been organized into a meaninful fashion. 
  11. What is computer hardware?  What is computer software?  List two types of software. 
    • hardware is any part of the computer you can physically touch. 
    • software is the set of computer programs that enables the hardware to perform different tasks. 
    • Two types of software are application software (programs you use to write papers, etc.) and system software (programs that allow hardware and application software to work together)
  12. What is the difference between RAM and ROM?
    • RAM: random access memory.  The place where currently-used programs are stored.  Fast to read/write, volatile, erased when the computer is turned off. 
    • ROM: Read-only memory.  Holds the instructions the computer needs to start up when it is powered on.  Not volatile. 
  13. What is CPU?
    The central processing unit.  The "brains" of the computer.  It controls all the functions performed by the computer's other components and processes all commands issued to it by software instructions. 
  14. What is ergonomics?  How do you set up a computer to avoid strain and injury? 
    • Ergonomics is how you set up your computer and other equipment to minimize injury and strain and maximize efficiency. 
    • Top of monitor at or below eye level
    • adjustable-height monitor, keyboard tray and wrist-rest
    • lumbar support
    • adjustable chair
    • footrest if needed
  15. What are bits and bytes?
    • Bits are binary digits, single characters (0 or 1)
    • Bytes are strings of 8 bits.  Code that makes up a single character. 
  16. What is the difference between a laser printer and an inkjet printer?
    • a laser printer uses laser beams and static electricity to deliver toner onto the page, then fixing it with heat.  Good for high volume. 
    • An inkjet printer is the standard type of printer in most homes.  It sprays tiny drops of ink onto paper. 
  17. What is MHz?  What is GHz?
    A hertz is a "machine cycle per second".  gigahertz are billions of machine cycles per second.  Megahertz are millions of machine cycles per second. 
  18. What is a pixel? 
    A single point that creates the images on a computer monitor.  Pixels are illuminated by an electron beam that passes rapidly back and forth across the back of the screen so that the pixels appear to glow continuously. 
  19. List at least four types of computers. 
    • Notebook computers (laptop)
    • Netbook computer (small, lightweight, long battery)
    • tablet computer (swivel monitor, stylus, virtual keyboard)
    • desktop computer (stationary)
    • All-in-one computer (monitor and tower in one piece)
    • Mainframe (many users)
    • Supercomputer (few processes, very fast)
    • embedded computer (chip inside another device)
  20. What's the origin of the Internet?
    • During the cold war, the US needed a computer system that would operate efficiently and was located all over the country so it was not easily attacked. Also needed a way to connect computers made by different manufacturers. 
    • Came from the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), a network of UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, The University of California at Satna Barbara and University of Utah in Salt Lake City.  
    • Standards and protocols made by Vinton Verf and Robert Khan. 
  21. What is a web browser?  What is a URL? 
    A web browser is the software that lets us interact with the internet, in text, video, audio or any other media.  URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator.  It is the unique address of a web site.  Entering it into the web browser will take you to the site.  
  22. In e-commerce, what does B2B stands for? What does B2C stands for?
    B2B stands for Business to Business, indicating that a business is buying and selling products to another business.  B2C stands for Business to Consumer, indicating a business that is buying and selling to a consumer.  There is also C2C, consumer to consumer, indicating a business like ebay, where one person sells to another.
  23. What is domain name? What is WWW? What is Web 2.0?
    • A domain name is the name of a site, identifying the host, which is the location of the computer that maintains the website's files.  It is followed by a suffix (like .com) that indicates a "top-level domain", which is a kind of organization.  
    • WWW stands for the world wide web, a part of the internet that uses HTML (HyperText Transfer Protocol) pages to allow computers to talk.  It includes special links to pages (URLs beginning with www.).  
    • Web 2.0 is considered the "social web".  It is a form of the internet that allows people to actively contribute and share content.  Social sites such as facebook are an excellent example.  
  24. What is social networking? Please list two social networking websites.
    Social networking is an internet-based way to keep in touch and share personal, casual information with other people.  It is also useful as a business tool, in finding clients, filling positions and marketing. Some social sites include Facebook, Twitter, Ning, Mixxt, SocialGO and LinkedIn.
  25. What’s the difference between application software and system software?
    • System software are the programs that help the computer to run.  This includes the operating system and any resource managing software.  It is also the middleman between hardware and application software.  
    • Application software is the sotware most people are familiar with, such as Microsoft Word.  It is the programming necessary to write letters, edit photos, send emails and pay taxes. 
  26. What is freeware? Shareware?
    Freeware is free software, usually available for download online.  OpenOffice is an example of freeware.  It is a free program not unlike Microsoft Office.  Shareware is software that is offered as freeware for a limited time, then expires if not paid for, like a demo.  
  27. What is open source software?
    Open-source software are programs that are publicly available with few restrictions.  They can be copied, changed and distributed without violating copyright
  28. What is SaaS?
    SaaS stands for Software as a Service.  It is where an application is hosted online, so that the programs needed to run it are contained in the cloud and no software need be downloaded.  It is also called a web-based application.  Gmail is an example of an SaaS, because it can be accessed from any computer, on any web browser, without downloading anything. 
  29. What is software license and software piracy?
    • A software license is a contract between the user and the software company.  It lays out how the program can be used legally, if it can be loaded onto any other devices and if there is a warranty.  The company requires that you agree to the contract before downloading the software.  
    • Software piracy is the stealing of software.  It involves using software that is not legally licensed on the device it is being used on, usually due to installing copies on more devices that the licensing agreement allows.  Piracy accounts for about 40% of software use.  
  30. What software is included in system software?
    The software included in system software is the operating system and utility programs, such as system maintinence and file compression. 
  31. What are the different kinds of operating systems?
    There are many different operating systems.  Real-Time operating systems are used in robotics and scientific computers.  They perform a repetitive series of specific tasks in an exact amount of time.  Operating systems for networks, servers and mainframes include multi-user or network operating systems that allow more than one user at a time.  Firmware is a simple form of an operating system for single-function devices that is simply instructions stored permanently on computer chips.  Operating systems for mobile devices include the smartphone operating systems such as Symbian, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Apple iOS, Android and WebOS.  Video game consoles and CD players come with their own type of operating system as well.  Operating systems for personal computers are the best known and consist of systems like Linux, Windows or MAC OS.  Some day soon there may be web-based systems that are stored in the cloud and can therefore be accessed on any device.  
  32. How does the operating system interact with application software?
    • The operating system arranges activitities for the processor, allowing everything to get done in a timely fashion.  This allows the computer to switch between many tasks, making it look like they are occurring simultaneously.  Every time something is done in application software it creates an "event" in that software.  The operating system responds to these events.  If something needs to happen immediatly the event is a special kind called an "interrupt" that is a priority call.  The operating system looks at all events including interrupts and assigns each a priority.
    • The operating system also includes the blocks of code (APIs) that application software needs to interact with the operating system (this is what the book says, but it seems like this should be the CPU...).  These APIs prevent software code redundancy and help software developers. 
  33. How does the operating system provide a means for users to interact with the computer?
    The operating system provides the user interface.  This can consist of something like DOS which was a command-driven interface, a menu interface that lets you chose from options in a menu or the current graphical user interface (Windows and MacOS), where you can click on a graphic with a mouse to select it.
  34. What is disk defragmenter?
    A disk defragmenter is a software program that regroups related pieces of files after they have been saved in locations all over the hard drive.  This allows the operating system to work faster and more effectively, since it doesn't have to look for all the pieces of a file before opening it.  The process the disk defragmentor goes through is called optimization. 
  35. What is file allocation table (FAT)?
    The file allocation table is an index of all sector numbers in a table, which helps keep track of which sections of the computer have which files. 
  36. What does BIOS stand for? What does GUI stand for? What does DOS stand for?
    • BIOS-Basic Input/Output Program
    • GUI-Graphical User Interface
    • DOS-Disk Operating System

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