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what types of meds are used for chronic CHF therapy?
- diuretics (furosemide, spirinolactone)
- ACE inhibitors
- vasodilators (hydralazine, Amlodipine)
- + inotropes (pimobendan, digoxin)
what is MOA for digoxin?
- inhibits Na/K ATPase and incr. Ca+
- (can incr. arrhythmias in atria; decr. them in ventricles)
Are B-blockers helpful with DCM or HCM?
HCM is idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy and is genetic in which cat breeds?
- Maine coons
- rag dolls
- American SH
what type of murmur is associated with HCM?
systolic murmur w/gallop rhythm heard best over sternum
how does the mitral valve worsen HCM?
*systolic anterior motion* - increased pressure in ventricle pulls mitral leaflet into aortic outflow - obstruction - further incr. pressure in ventricle - worsens hypertrophy
is HCM more commonly associated w/ atrial or ventricular fibrillation?
atrial fib (and TBE, sudden death)
what meds are considered for tx of HCM?
- beta blockers/Diltiazem (slow rate for better filling)
- ACE inhibitors
- Aspirin/Clopidogrel (to prevent TBE)
what age cat is affected by restrictive cardiomyopathy? what type of murmur? atrial or ventricular fibrillation?
- middle aged to older
- systolic murmur w/gallop rhythm heard on sternum
- ventricular arrythmias
What breed of cat is affected by peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernias?
what is the most common cause of heart failure in the dog?
which valve is most often affected by endocardiosis?
mitral (and tricuspid) - causes holosystolic plateau murmur
is valvular endocardiosis associated w/atrial or ventricular fibrillation?
atrial (enlarged atria also causes bronchial compression)
endocardiosis is a degenerative valve disease affecting what size dogs at what age?
- small-mid sized older dogs
- (*except King Charles- young*)
what is myxomatous degeneration?
nodular thickening, deformity and weakening of valve with endocardiosis
how can the progression of valvular endocardiosis be monitored at home?
have owners monitor resting respiration rate (earliest sign of PE)
what valve is affected with bacterial endocarditis?
aortic and mitral
what is cause of bacterial endocarditis?
- concurrent or recent infections
- transient or persistent bacteremia (strep, staph, e.coli, bartonella)
what age and size dog is often affected by endocarditis? what kind of murmur?
young large breed w/newly diagnosed murmur (to and fro murmur)
what types of dogs are affected by DCM? what type of murmur?
- large/giant breed males (esp. Dobies)
- systolic (+/-) diastolic murmur that may have gallop rhythm
what nutritional deficiencies can cause DCM?
- taurine deficiency in cats
- L-carnitine deficiency in cocker spaniels
are atrial or ventricular arrhythmias a common sequela of DCM?
atrial fib and VPCs
how is ECG affected by DCM?
tall R waves
what meds are considered for tx of DCM?
- ACE inhibitors to decr. afterload
- improve contractility (pimobendan, digoxin)
- (+/-Bblocker/Diltiazem to control arrhythmias)
what is MOA of pimobendan?
- phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor
- ionodilator (incr. contractility by incr. Ca sensitivity)
- peripheral vasodilator
does pericardial disease affect R or L side first?
right side (thinner walls so compresses first)
what is most common type of fluid accumulation in dogs w/pericardial effusion?