TEST 4

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saunde86
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206209
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TEST 4
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2013-03-14 15:40:24
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  1. name all the parts or components of a secretory nerve cell.
    • cell body
    • multiple dendrites
    • single axon
  2. compared to all neurons secretory neurons have a unique function, describe the intracellular location for this unique function.
    hormone synthesis in cell body
  3. for secretory cells, describe how specificity of action is achieved.
    location of receptors in target cell (hormones can travel into cell)
  4. name a hormone secreted from thyrotropes, discuss the role, if any, of the hypothalamus in regulating secretion of this hormone.
    oxytocin  or vasopressin (ADH), hypothalamus synthesizes in the cell body and transports down axon electrical stimulation
  5. name a hormone that is secreted by thyrotropes, discuss the role, if any, of the hypothalamus in regulating secretion of the hormone.
    thyroid stimulating hormone. hypothalamus secretes thyroid releasing hormone which stimulates thyrotropes to release thyroid stimulating hormone.
  6. name and describe the hypothalamic message that will change metabolic/secretory activity of lactotropes. what is the direction of the change.
    dopamine, decreases secretion of prolactin from lactotropes
  7. name the hormone secreted from corticotropes
    adrenocorticotropic hormone
  8. name target cell for the hormone from corticotropes
    zona fasiculata in adrenal cortex
  9. PIF, give full name, endocrine cell, target cell, action at target cell, and chemical nature.
    • full name: Prolactin inhibiting factor
    • endocrine cell: hypothlamic secretory neuron
    • target cell:  lactotrope
    • action: decreased prolactin
    • chemical nature: biogenic amine (dopamine)
  10. cortisol, give full name, endocrine cell, target cell, action at target cell, and chemical nature.
    • full name: cortisol
    • endocrine cell: zona fasiculata
    • target cell: skeletal muscle and fat
    • action: catabolism
    • chemical nature: steroid
  11. IGH-1, give full name, endocrine cell, target cell, action at target cell, and chemical nature.
    • full name: insulin like growth factor-1
    • endocrine cell: hepatocyte
    • target cell: chondrocyte and mammary
    • action: mitosis, differentiate cartilage
    • chemical nature: peptide
  12. name any hormone that is a modified amino acid.
    melatonin, thyroxine, or triiodothyronine
  13. for T3/T4 name the tropic hormone, endocrine cell, and action at target cell.
    • tropic: thyroid stimulating hormone
    • endocrine: follicle cell in thyroid
    • action: increased basal metabolic rate.
  14. for a hormone and neurotransmitter name at least two functional features that are the same
    biological messengers, receptor dependent, change metabolism
  15. name three features of T3/T4 that designate it as a hormone.
    blood transport, receptor dependent, change metabolism
  16. describe anatomy and composition of a hypothalamic secretory nucleus.
    collection of nerve cell bodies that all produce some product.
  17. what is the general chemical nature of the output form a hypothalamic secretory nucleus?
    most are peptides
  18. what is the minimum number of hypothalamic secretory nuclei? EXPLAIN.
    • 8 nuclei, to secrete:
    • oxytocin
    • vasopressin
    • luteanizing hormone releasing hormone
    • growth hormone releasing hormone
    • thyroid releasing hormone
    • prolactin inhibiting factor
    • corticotropic releasing hormone
    • somatostatin
  19. the majority of hypothalamic nuclei have a similar effect on the next lower level of the endocrine cascade. list and describe all hypothalamic nuclei that are exceptions to the majority.
    • dopamine: decreased prolactin
    • somatostatin: decrease growth hormone
  20. defend or refute. milk ejection is a reflex and thus depends exclusively on nerves. EXPLAIN.
    REFUTE. milk ejection is a neuro-endocrine reflex and thus depends on nerves and hormones.
  21. what type of capillary severs nerves?
    continuous. most restrictive (blood brain barrier)
  22. describe at least two features or characteristics for the action of neurons (what are the features for the general nature of neuronal action).
    • short lag phase
    • short action
    • action is discrete (on/off)
  23. defend or refute. neuron A communicates with neuron B through an electrical signal. Explain.
    REFUTE. intercellular communication is at synapse so nature is chemical not electrical.
  24. what part of neuron A communicates with what part of neuron B?
    • neuron A: axon
    • neuron B: dendrite primarily but in some cases could be cell body or axon of neuron B
  25. discuss function of the hypophyseal portal system. use adrenal cascade as an example to illustrate.
    local transport of corticotropin releasing hormone from hypothalamus (first plexus) through portal vein to anterior pituitary (second plexus)
  26. the hypopheseal portal system is destroyed, describe the change to secretion of all protein hormones (increase decrease no change)
    • decrease luteanizing hormone
    • decrease follicle stimulating hormone
    • decrease thyroid stimulating hormone
    • decrease adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • decrease or no change in growth hormone
    • increase prolactin
  27. what is the function of the hypophyseal portal system? use less than 10 words.
    local transport of hypothalamus hormone to anterior pituitary.
  28. explain how bulk flow occurs at proximal and distal end of hypophyseal portal veins
    • proximal: normal arteriole/capillary pressure leads to filtration
    • distal: low pressure in hypophyseal portal vein increase with separate arteriole supply of blood to anterior pituitary.
  29. fill in
    1. secretory product=
    2a. target cell for 1=
    2b. product for cell 2a=
    3a. target cell for 2b=
    3b. product of cell 3a= progesterone
    4a. target cell for 3b=
    4b. action of 3b on 4a=
    • 1= luteanizing hormone releasing hormone
    • 2a= gonadotrope
    • 2b= luteanizing hormone
    • 3a= luteal cell
    • 3b= progesterone
    • 4a= endometrium
    • 4b= secretory
  30. fill in
    1. secretory product=
    2a. target cell for 1=
    2b. product for cell 2a=thyroid stimulating hormone
    3a. target cell for 2b=
    3b. product of cell 3a=
    4a. target cell for 3b=
    4b. action of 3b on 4a=
    • 1= thyroid releasing hormone
    • 2a= thyrotrope
    • 2b= thyroid stimulating hormone
    • 3a= thyroid follicle
    • 3b= triiodothyronine/ thyroxine
    • 4a= skeletal muscle or fat
    • 4b= increased basal metabolic rate
  31. fill in
    1. secretory product=
    2a. target cell for 1=
    2b. product for cell 2a=
    3a. target cell for 2b=
    3b. product of cell 3a= insulin like growth factor-1
    4a. target cell for 3b=
    4b. action of 3b on 4a=
    • 1= growth hormone releasing hormone
    • 2a= somatotrope
    • 2b= growth hormone
    • 3a= hepatocyte
    • 3b= insulin like growth factor-1
    • 4a= chondrocyte
    • 4b= mitosis/differentiation
  32. describe the action of levels one two and three of the endocrine system with an ovariectomy of a cow at 10 days postestrus (removal of corpus luteum)
    • level one: increased Luteanizing hormoen releasing hormone
    • level two: increased luteanizing hormone
    • level three: decreased progesterone
  33. describe the action of levels one two and three of the endocrine system with stalk transection on thyroid.
    • level one: increased thyroid stimulating hormone
    • level two: decreased thyroid stimulating hormone
    • level three: decreased triiodothyronine and thyroxine
  34. describe the action of levels one two and three of the endocrine system with castration of bull after puberty.
    • level one: increased luteanizing hormone releasing hormone
    • level two a: increased luteanizing hormone
    • level two b: increased follicle stimulating hormone
    • level three a: decreased testosterone
    • level three b: decreaed inhibin
  35. describe what happens at levels on two and three of the endocrine system with an ovariectomy of cows at 10 days postestrus.
    • level one: increased luteanizing hormone releasing hormone
    • level two: increased luteanizing hormone
    • level three decreased progesterone
  36. describe what happens at levels on two and three of the endocrine system with stalk transectionon thyroid
    • level one: increased thyroid stimulating hormone
    • level two: decreased thyroid stimulating hormone
    • level three: decreased triiodothronine/thyroxine
  37. describe what happens at levels on two and three of the endocrine system with castration of a bull after puberty
    • level one: increased luteanixing hormone releasing hormone
    • level two a: increased luteanizing hormone
    • level two b: increased follicle stimulating hormone
    • level three a: decreased testosterone
    • level three b: decreased inhibin
  38. describe what happens at levels on two and three of the endocrine system with ovariectomy of mares at estrus (remove follicle)
    • level one: increased luteanizing hormone releasing hormone
    • level two: increased follicle stimulating hormone
    • level three: decreased inhibin
  39. describe what happens at levels on two and three of the endocrine system with exogenous luteinizing hormone
    • level one: decreased luteinizing hormone releasing hormone
    • level two: increased luteinizing hormone
    • level three: increased testosterone/progesterone
  40. name a type  of cell that is a target for luteinizing hormone and describe the action of luteinizing hormone on that type of cell.
    • luteal cell: increased progesterone
    • leydig cell: increased testosterone
  41. list salient aspects for luteinizing hormone to act at a target cell. start consideration in interstitial fluid and list, in sequence, the salient positive events for action of luteinizing hormone
    bind to receptor-lateral shift in hormone and receptor-increased second messenger activity-increased cyclic AMP activity activate protein kinase-phosphorilation-activates enzyme-increase product
  42. in a target cell for luteinizing hormone name two methods for negative regulation of the action
    • phosphodiesterase metabolizes cAMP
    • phosphatase inactivates enzymes
  43. name a type of cell that is target for progesterone and describe the action of progesterone
    • myometrium- decreased contraction frequency
    • endometrium- secretion
    • mammary- alveolar development
  44. list salient aspects for progesterone to act at a target cell. start consideration in interstitial fluid and list in sequence the salient positive events for action of progesterone.
    progesterone enters cell and bonds to receptor. hormone reaction goes to nucleus beta unit binds to protein and alpha unit binds to dna to increase or decrease protein action.
  45. RU486 blocks action of progesterone-receptor complex. discuss mechanism of action of RU486.
    • receptor plus RU486 possible mechanism
    • does not enter nucleus
    • does not separate monomers
    • prevents progesterone binding
  46. describe endocrine cascade for LH in females. levels on through four
    • level one: Hypothalamus secretes Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone from the hypothalamic secretory nueron, it is a peptide, that effects gonadotropes.
    • level two: anterior pituitary secretes luteinizing hormone from gonadotropes, it is a protein that effects granulosa cells, thecal cells, and luteal cells.
    • level three: ovary houses granulosa cells that produce estrodiol, thecal cells that produce testosterone, and luteal cells that produce progesterone, these are all steroidal hormones that have targets in level four of endometrium, myometrium, mammary ducts and parenchyma (mainly progesterone at parenchyma)
  47. esatrodiol effect at endometrium
    proliferation
  48. estrodiol effect at myometrium
    increased frequency of contractions
  49. estrodiol effect at mammary
    increased ductal development
  50. progesterone effect at endometrium
    hypertrophy and secretion
  51. progesterone effect at endometrium
    decreased contraction random direction
  52. progesterone effect at mammary
    increase in parenchyma
  53. estrodiol effect in males
    seminiferous tubules effect area causes development of spermatogonia into spermatocyte
  54. effect or cortisol on skeletal muscle and adipocyte
    catabolism
  55. effects of triiodothyronine and thyroxine
    increase consumption of energy
  56. effects of IGF-1
    chodrocytes proliferation and differentiation
  57. effeccts of prolactin
    • lipogenic on adiposcytes
    • lactogenesis and galactopoesis effects on mammary alveolar epithelium
  58. describe the difference between prolactin endocrine cascade and most others
    prolactin is secreted due to external effects and the hypothalamic secretion involved with prolactin actually inhibits its secretion versus promoting it. increase in prolactin levels will support the secretion of Dopamine to inhibit secretion of prolactin and long days and high ambient temps and suckling promote prolactin secretion.
  59. what is the chemical nature of dopamine
    catecholamine
  60. what hormone does a somatotrope produce and what is its chemical nature?
    growth hormone and it is a protein
  61. what hormone does a lactotrope produce and what is its chemical structure?
    prolactin which is a protein.
  62. what hormone does a corticotrope produce
    adrenocorticotropic hormone
  63. what hormone does a thyrotrope produce?
    thyroid stimulating hormone
  64. what hormones do gonadotropes produce?
    lutenizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone

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