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to analyze structure, culture, and behavior of organization
- 70% of OD practitioners use them
Types of Diagnostic Models (5 types)
- -Differentiation-and-integration model/ analytic model
- -Sociotechnical systems
- -Force-field analysis
- -The Fishbone
- -Cause maps & social network analysis
Look at interdepartmental issues
Example: issues between HR & Finance, or HR
Differentiation-and-Integration Model/Analytical Model
Two interrelated systems in organization. The social & technical systems.
Example: employees work 36 X 36 X 48 hours;
however, it must be recorded as
40 X 40 X 40
Write the problem in the “head”
Brainstorm major causes of the problem and write them at the end of
each fish “bone”
Analyze each causes and write sub-causes on the “bones”
Reach consensus on 1 or 2 major causes
Explore ways to correct or remove the major causes
mathematical representation of individual and group.
Social Network analysis
mathematical representations of
relationships among variables.
Behavior balance between forces working in
act to keep organization stable
act to change organization
when driving and restraining forces are equal
What are the different levels for changes?
- Changes on a Personal
- Patterns of behavior, relationships with others,
- work procedures, and job skills.
- Changes on an
- Organizational Level:
- Policies, procedures, structures, manufacturing
- processes, and work flows.
5 phases of the life cycle
of resistance to change
- Phase 1
- Only few people who see need for change.
- Resistance appears massive.
- 1-5% advocates, 95-99% resistance
- Phase 2
- Forces for and against change become
- Change more thoroughly understood.
- Novelty of change tends to disappear.
- Phase 3
- Direct conflict and showdown between forces.
- Life or death of change
- Often change components underestimate strength of
- opposition (resistance to change)
- Phase 4
- Remaining resistance seen as stubborn.
- Possibility that resisters will mobilize support
- to shift balance of power.
- Phase 5
- Resisters to change are as few and as alienated
- as advocates in the first phase
- 95-99% advocates, 1-5% resistance
Affecting Success of Change
- Advocates of Change MOST IMPORTANT
- Person leading change program is often most
- important force for change.
- Degree of change (minor or major change)
- The larger the degree of change, the more
- difficult for success
- Time Frame
- Bigger time frame, the higher chance of success
- Greater chance of success if change is gradual
- and in longer time frame.
- Impact on culture
- The larger the impact
- on culture, the lower the success
- Evaluation on Culture
- Standards of performance developed to measure
- change and impact on organization.
The “Change Model” and the
- Quadrant 1: Minor ∆, minor impact on culture.
- Quadrant 2: Minor ∆, major impact on culture.
- Some resistance can be expected.
- Quadrant 3: Major ∆, minor impact on culture.
- Some resistance is likely.
- Good management can probably overcome it.
- Quadrant 4: Major ∆, major impact on culture.
Driving forces toward the acceptance of change
External pressures toward change.
- 4 Driving Forces Include
- (can be internal or external):
- Dissatisfaction with present situation.
Motivation by Management
- towards change-
- Number of advocates and how strong the push
Restraining Forces Blocking Implementation of
Change (General and Change specific)
- General Reasons for
- of routine (inertia)
- Disturb existing social networks.
- Conformity to norms and culture (peer pressure)
- Reasons for Resistance:
- Uncertainty or fear of unknown regarding
- change (misunderstanding)
- (loss of benefit, threat of security, and threat to position or power) *biggest reason for resistance*
- Redistribution of power
Different intensity levels
- -Foot changers
- -Uninterested people
- -Passive resistors
- -Overt-active opponents
- -Covert – active opponents
What are strategies for overcoming
resistance to change
- Education and communication/create a
- vision/creating a climate conducive to communications
- Participation & involvement of members
- Facilitation and support/use leadership (both
- formal and informal)
- Negotiation & agreement
- Explicit and implicit coercion/power strategy
What are the 3 basic types
of change strategies
planning, helps organization plan interventions.
graphical view of changes.
identifying behavioral, technological, and structural interventions to be
used in OD program.
What makes stream analysis good/useful?
- -Keeps us on track
- -shows triggers
- -shows "holes"
- -shows "were we've been" and "where we have to go"
an OD intervention, what kinds of things should practitioners and clients
- Potential results of technique.
- § Does it solve the
- basic problem (intended)?
- § Unintended
- consequences (good and bad)
- implementation of technique including costs versus benefit.
- § Cost/benefit
- § Can it work in a practical application?
- acceptance of technique
- § Has it been
- adequately developed, tested, communicated?
Changing Nature of Management
- FROMManagers that oversee a process
- TOManagers who are employee coaches
OD practitioner skill for helping work groups become more effective.
Purpose of process
interventions is to:
-Help work groups understand the way they operate
-Become more aware of the way group members work with one another
goal of process intervention
- Help workgroups develop their own problem-solving ability
- The managerdoesn’t tell a team how to solve its problems, but helps teams toidentify problems and initiate their own solutions.
desired outcomes of process intervention
Team is more effective and independent ProcessInterventions include: Clarifying,summarizing, synthesizing, generalizing, probing, questioning, listening,reflective feelings, provides support, coaching, counseling, modeling,setting the agenda, feedback, structural suggestions
What a group does
how a group does what they do
5 areas that group
PIs usually focus on
- 1. Communication.Analyzingcommunications process within group.Observinglength of time member talks, who talks to whom, and who interrupts whom.
- 2. Member roles & functions in groups. Roles can begroup task, group building and maintenance, and individual
- 3. Group problem-solving & decision-making.Helping group understand how it makes decisions. Group consensus is one all members share in making and will support.
- 4. Group norms & growth.Assisting group in understanding its norms and how they affect decision making.Group will improve decision making as members grow.
- 5. Leadership & authority.Groupunderstands impact of leadership and authority.Look at bothformal and informal leader
is giving employees power to
make decisions about work (usually pushed to lower levels)
Engaging employees so they develop sense of pride and
Interventions aimed at enhancing development of individual members.
- -Helping organization members improve communications.
- -Interpersonal skills.
- -Managerial performance.
OD programs that involve empowerment
- Job enrichment
- Learning organizations **Most Common**
- Self-directed teams
- PDM – participation in decision making
outcomes from empowerment
Higher effort (only 46% of employees give best effort 90% of the time)Personally challenged (only 36% feel personally challenged)Commitment, pride, creativity
empowerment programs fail
- -Unappreciated and misused
- -Managers don’t provide tools, information, resources
- -Moves responsibility, not more rewards (no extra $ for moreresponsibility)
- -Managers get rid of accountability
- -Employees want it, but are not trustworthy
Sometimes called encounter groups, sensitivity training, and training groups.
Involves using a group as laboratory for discoveringcause-and-effect relations in interpersonal communications.
Usually includes 10-12 participants who do not knowone another, and/or two experiment facilitators
Objectives of Lab
- Insights into managerial and personal style.
- Determine impact upon others.
- Awareness of group functioning.
- Analyzing and coping with change.
technique for identifying interpersonal communication style.
Model presents 2 dimensional, 4 cell figure based on interaction
of self and others.
Johari Model 4 areas
- Public area - behavior, thoughts, and feelings which are known both to the person and to others.
- Blind area - aspects of the self not known to oneself but readilyapparent to others.
- Closed area - behaviorsand feelings known only to oneself but not to others
- Unknown area - aspects of self not known to oneself or others.
3 types of transactions among people:
- Ulterior. - Involves two ego states simultaneously: The literal words of the transaction, which may mean one thing.And the underlying intent, which may mean something entirely different.