womens health

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  1. -fibroadenoma
    a mass of connective tissue that is unattached to the surrounding breast tissue  and is usually discovered by the woman herself or during mammography
  2. fibrocystic breast conditions (fbc)
    • -involves the lobules, ducts, stomal tissues
    • -20-50 yrs of age
    • -caused by imbalances in the normal estrogen to progesterone ratio
    • -breast pain, tender lumps or areas of thickening in the breasts
    • -lumps are rubbery and ill defined and commonly found in the upper outer quadrent of the breast
  3. ductal ectasia
    • -benign breast problem that is usually seen in women approaching menopause
    • -when a breast duct dilates and its walls thicken, causing the duct to become blocked
  4. intraductal papilloma
    • -age 40-55 years old
    • -in the epithelial lining of the duct forms a papilloma (predunculated outgrowth of tissue)
    • -as it grows trauma and erosion within the duct result in a bloody or serous nipple discharge
    • -rarely palpable
  5. reduction mammoplasty
    • -removal of excess breast tissue
    • -reposition nipple and skin flaps
    • -major surgery
  6. breast augmentation
    • increase or improve the size, shape or symmetry of breasts
    • -saline or silicone implants

    pre-op: stop smoking, medications, surgical expectations/complications

    post op: incisions, soreness, edema, avoid lifting, push, pull or twisting above waist
  7. breast cancer
    • -most common diagnosed cancer in women
    • -2nd leading killer of women
    • -early detection is key to survival
  8. high risk for breast cancer
    • -age
    • -genetics
    • -family history
    • -history of previous breast cancer
    • -breast density
    • -BRCA1 AND BRCA2-tumor suppressor genes..mutations of these genes lead to 60% risk for breast cancer
  9. moderate risk for breast cancer
    • -family history
    • -confirmed atypical hyperplasia
    • -ionizing radiation
  10. low risk for breast cancer
    • -history
    • -menstrual history (start menses early =increased risk)
    • -oral contraceptives
    • -hormone replacement
    • -obesity
  11. other risks
    • -alcohol
    • -high socioeconomic status
    • -jewish heritage
  12. prophylactic mastectomy
    preventive surgical removal of one or both breasts
  13. prophylactic oophorectomy
    removal of the ovaries
  14. 3 pronged approach to early detection
    • -mammography-age 40 and over yearly
    • -self breast exam-READ!!! start 1 week after start of meses
    • -clinical breast exam-READ!!!!!!
  15. breast biopsy
    • -needle aspiration
    • -vacuum assisted biopsy
    • -advanced breast biopsy instrument
    • -incisional biopsy
  16. lumpectomy
    removal of lump
  17. simple mastectomy
    removal of the breast tissue without lymph node involvement
  18. modified radical mastectomy
    lymph nodes and breast tissue are removed
  19. adjuvant therapy
    in addition to surgery
  20. neoadjuvant therapy
    give chemo before surgery to shrink the tumor
  21. modified radical mastectomy
    breast tissue, nipple and lymph nodes are removed, but muscles are left intact
  22. simple mastectomy
    breast tissue and nipple are removed, but lymph nodes are left intact
  23. lumpectomy with lymph node dissection
    the tumor and lymph nodes are removed, other tissue is left intact
  24. breast conserving surgery
    • -used for stage 1 and stage 2 breast cancer
    • -removes tumor (clean margins-do not want tumor tissue on ledge, remove tissue til no cancer cells) leaves varying amounts of breast
    • -follow with radiation

    • -lumpectomy
    • -wide excision
    • -partial or segmental mastectomy
  25. mastectomy
    • -simple
    • -modified radical: breast tissue, skin and axillary lymph nodes are removed
    • -radical: pectoral muscles removed, rarely performed
  26. can breast reconstruction happen right after a mastectomy?
  27. breast expanders
    • -most common
    • -saline injections for 6-8 weeks
    • -permanent implant
  28. autologous
    • -natural appearance
    • -skin, fat and muscle
    • -donor site
    • -nipple reconstruction
  29. allogenic
    taken from healthy persons bone marrow or peripheral blood
  30. radiation
    • -specific area to shrink tumor
    • -whole breast
    • -partial breast
  31. chemotherapy
    • -systemic
    • -stage 2 or higher
    • -4-6 courses of treatment
    • -dose dense chemotherapy
  32. targeted therapy
    • -targeted specific characteristics of cancer cells
    • -does not harm
    • -normal, non cancer cells
    • -herceptin-dont need to remember
  33. hormonal therapy
    • -decreased estrogen availability
    • -LH-RH agonists
    • -leuprolide (lupron)
    • -goserlin (zoladex)
    • -serms
    • -tamoxifin
    • -aromatase inhibitors
    • -fulvestrant (faslodex)
  34. endometriosis
    • -endometrial tissue implanted outside the uterine cavity
    • -5.5 million women affected
    • -responds to hormonal fluctuations
    • -cause: unknown
    • -affects infertility
    • -dyspanunia: painful intercourse, low back pain, painful BM, infertility issues
  35. dysfunctional uterine bleeding
    • -excessive bleeding
    • -cause: hormonal imbalance
    • -hormone therapy
    • -surgery
  36. volvovaginitis
    • -inflammation of lower genital tract
    • -causes: infections, chemical irritants, changes in normal flora
  37. urterine prolapse
    • -downward placement
    • -causes: pregnancy, neuromuscular damage of childbirth, obesity, decreased estrogen leading to weakening pelvic support
  38. cystocele
    bladder displaces vaginal wall
  39. rectocele
    rectum displaces vaginal wall
  40. uterine leiomyoma
    • -slow growing uterine muscle tumors
    • -common types: intramural, submucosal, subserosal
    • -incidence increases as women age
    • -pain is rare, heavy vag. bleeding
  41. types of hysterecomys
    • -TAH-total abdominal
    • -TVH- total vaginal
    • -LAVH-laproscopic assisted
    • -bilateral salpingo opherectomy-removale of both ovaries and fallopian tubes
  42. lymphedema
    abnormal accumulation of protein fluid in the sub q tissue of the affected limb after a mastectomy
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womens health
2013-03-10 23:37:51
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