Card Set Information
speech science ch 6
The phonatory system is comprised of the
phonation process involves
air pressures and flows and muscular and elastic properties of the vocal folds
the vocal mechanism includes
laryngeal skeleton plus joints, three pairs of folds and intrinstic and extrinsic muscles
the laryngeal skeleton is made up of how many bones and cartilages?
1 bone, nine cartilages
of the nine cartilages, how many paired and unpaired?
6 paired and 3 unpaired
which cartilages are unpaired
thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis
aryteniods, corniculates, cuniforms
the cartilaginous framework of the larynx is suspended from the
the small u shaped bone from which the tongue is attached
the larynx is suspended from the hyiod bone via this membrane
the hyiod bone consists of
the body in the front and the major and minor horns
the long sides of the hyiod that forms the u shape are
the major horns
projecting upward from each major horn if the hyiod are
the minor horns
inferior to the hyiod bone is
the thyriod cartilage
the largest cartilage of the larynx
the thyriod cartilage is formed by
two plates of laminae that are fused at the front
the fusion of the cartilage plates of the thyriod is more acute in what sex?
we know this protrusion as the
the small v shaped notch at the top of the thyriod
what projections connect the thyriod to the hyiod bone
the superior horns via liagments
two projections that shoot downward from the thyriod are the
these articulate with the
sides of the cricoid cartilage
the posterior reigon of the thyroid is
the vocal folds are attached to the inner surface of the?
what is this called?
just below the thyroid notch
the quadrate lamina is part of the
the cricoid is loacted
inferior to thyroid and superior to the first ring of the trachea
what runs between the inferioe margin of the cricoid and the superior margin of the first tracheal ring
the cricotracheal membrane
a broad unpaired cartilage shaped like a leaf
the epiglottis is attached to what structures?
to the inner surface of the thyriod cartilage just below the thyriod notch via the thyroepiglottic ligament and to the bodyof the hyoid via the hyoepiglottic ligament
this acts as a bridge during swallow folding over the larynx
what are located on the superior surface of thequadrate lamina of the cricoid
these are pyramidal in shape
what projections extend from the base of the arytenoids
vocal process and muscular process
these play an important role in phonation as the folds are attached to the vocal process
cartilages that do not appear to play important role in phonation
corniculates and cuneiforms
located at the apex of the arytenoids
which cartilages may not be present in all people?
small elastic cartilages embedded in the aryepiglottic folds
primary function of the cuneiforms
stiffen the aryepiglottic folds
the cricoaryteniod joints are formed by
articulation between the base of each arytenoid and the superior surface of the quadrate lamina of the cricoid
the cricoarytenoid joints are ______ allowing ??
diathrodial allowing a wide range of motion of the arytenoids
when the muscular processes of the vocal process move anterolaterally, the folds
move to midline and adduct
when the muscles of the vocal process move posteriorly the folds
become separated and abduct
which joints are instrumental in vocal fold adduction and abduction
joints located between inferior horn of the thyroid and sides of the cricoid cartilage
function of the cricothyroid joints
what does this affect?
allow thyroid to tilt downward toward arch of the cricoid or the cricoid to tilt upward
when this happens, it increases distance between thyroid and arytenoids strectching the folds and tensing resulting in higher Fo
the main agents of pitch in the voice
a hollow tube with 3 sets of valves inside that open and close
the three sets of folds
aryepiglottic folds, false or ventricular, and true
most superior foldsa
these run from the sidesof the epiglottis to the apex of the arytenoids
pulls the epiglottis backward and helps close the larynx
false or ventricular
folds with limited movement
false or ventricular
these remain open during phonation and close only under pathilogical conditions
false or ventricular folds
space between the false and true folds
this secreates mucus to moisten larynx
most complex laryngeal valves
vocal folds consist of how many layers?
layers of the true folds
thryroarytenoid muscle, threee layers of mucus membrane surrounding the muscle, and a layer of epithelium covering mucus membrane
outter most layer of the vocal folds
the three layers of mucus membrane are called?
the superficial layer of the lamina propria is known as?
its made up of?
this makes it?
elastic fibers=high degree of pliability
intermediate layer of lamina propria is made of
the 3rd layer of lamina propria
deep layer made up of collagen and is less flexible
main mass of the vocal folds
the five layers of the folds have been classified by?
this is known as the?
cover body model
resistance of a structur being displpaced
ease in which a body can be displaced
the cover consists of the
epithelium and superficial layer of lamina propria
this encompasses the intermediate and deep layers of the lamina propria
the transition or vocal ligament
the structural complexity of the folds give rise to a sound wave that is
acoustically complex which results in a rich resonant voice
space between the true folds
divisions of the glottis
membranous glotts and cartilaginous
this forms the anterior three fifths of the entire length of the glottis
the vocal process forms the lateral edges of?
which account for the posterior two fifths of the glottis
the membranous glottis is about ____ in males and ____ in females
15mm and 12mm
for quietbreathing the glottis is
open in the paramedian position
the glottis is open more widely when?
this is known as?
needing more air such as in exercise
for phoation, the glottis is
closed with the vocal folds in the median position
whispering is producted wth
the membranous glottis closed and cartilaginous open
muscles of the larynx are divided into
intrinsic and extrinsic
the strap muscles are aka
the extrinsic muscles have ____ of attachement to the ______ either at the ____ or _____, and to a __________
hyoid or another laryngeal cartilage
structure outside the larynx such as sternum or cranium
the extrinsic muscles are subdivided into
infrahyoid and suprahyoid
these have their external attachment point at structures below the hyoid including the sternum and scapula
these have their attachments one point above the hyoid including the mandible and temporal bone
then the infrahyoids contract, they pull the entire larynx
contraction of the suprahyoids pulls the _____ which way?
the entire larynx up
the large up and down movements of the larynx are due to the_____ and ______ and only occur when?
infrahyoids and suprahyoids during swallow
there are how many intrinsic laryngeal muscles?
the origin and insertion of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
2 of the 5 intrinsic muscles
adduct the folds
how many muscles abduct the folds
how many muscles elongate and tense the folds
how many muscles form the main body of the folds