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2013-03-10 20:23:21
speech science

speech science ch 6
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  1. The phonatory system is comprised of the
  2. phonation process involves
    air pressures and flows and muscular and elastic properties of the vocal folds
  3. the vocal mechanism includes
    laryngeal skeleton plus joints, three pairs of folds and intrinstic and extrinsic muscles
  4. the laryngeal skeleton is made up of how many bones and cartilages?
    1 bone, nine cartilages
  5. of the nine cartilages, how many paired and unpaired?
    6 paired and 3 unpaired
  6. which cartilages are unpaired
    thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis
  7. paired cartilages
    aryteniods, corniculates, cuniforms
  8. the cartilaginous framework of the larynx is suspended from the
    hyiod bone
  9. the small u shaped bone from which the tongue is attached
  10. the larynx is suspended from the hyiod bone via this membrane
    hyothyriod membrane
  11. the hyiod bone consists of
    the body in the front and the major and minor horns
  12. the long sides of the hyiod that forms the u shape are
    the major horns
  13. projecting upward from each major horn if the hyiod are 
    the minor horns
  14. inferior to the hyiod bone is
    the thyriod cartilage
  15. the largest cartilage of the larynx
  16. the thyriod cartilage is formed by
    two plates of laminae that are fused at the front
  17. the fusion of the cartilage plates of the thyriod is more acute in what sex?
    we know this protrusion as the
    • males
    • adams apple
  18. the small v shaped notch at the top of the thyriod
    thyriod notch
  19. what projections connect the thyriod to the hyiod bone
    the superior horns via liagments
  20. two projections that shoot downward from the thyriod are the
    these articulate with the
    • inferior horns
    • sides of the cricoid cartilage
  21. the posterior reigon of the thyroid is
  22. the vocal folds are attached to the inner surface of the? 
    where at? 
    what is this called?
    • thyriod
    • just below the thyroid notch
    • anterior commissure
  23. the quadrate lamina is part of the
  24. the cricoid is loacted 
    inferior to thyroid and superior to the first ring of the trachea
  25. what runs between the inferioe margin of the cricoid and the superior margin of the first tracheal ring
    the cricotracheal membrane
  26. a broad unpaired cartilage shaped like a leaf
  27. the epiglottis is attached to what structures?
    to the inner surface of the thyriod cartilage just below the thyriod notch via the thyroepiglottic ligament and to the bodyof the hyoid via the hyoepiglottic ligament
  28. this acts as a bridge during swallow folding over the larynx
  29. what are located on the superior surface of thequadrate lamina of the cricoid
  30. these are pyramidal in shape
  31. what projections extend from the base of the arytenoids
    vocal process and muscular process
  32. these play an important role in phonation as the folds are attached to the vocal process
  33. cartilages that do not appear to play important role in phonation
    corniculates and cuneiforms
  34. located at the apex of the arytenoids
  35. which cartilages may not be present in all people?
  36. small elastic cartilages embedded in the aryepiglottic folds 
  37. primary function of the cuneiforms
    stiffen the aryepiglottic folds
  38. the cricoaryteniod joints are formed by
    articulation between the base of each arytenoid and the superior surface of the quadrate lamina of the cricoid 
  39. the cricoarytenoid joints are ______ allowing ??
    diathrodial allowing a wide range of motion of the arytenoids
  40. when the muscular processes of the vocal process move anterolaterally, the folds
    move to midline and adduct
  41. when the muscles of the vocal process move posteriorly the folds
    become separated and abduct
  42. which joints are instrumental in vocal fold adduction and abduction
    cricoarytenoid joints
  43. joints located between inferior horn of the thyroid and sides of the cricoid cartilage
    cricothyroid joints
  44. function of the cricothyroid joints
    what does this affect?
    • allow thyroid to tilt downward toward arch of the cricoid or the cricoid to tilt upward
    • when this happens, it increases distance between thyroid and arytenoids strectching the folds and tensing resulting in higher Fo
  45. the main agents of pitch in the voice
    cricothyroid joints
  46. a hollow tube with 3 sets of valves inside that open and close
  47. the three sets of folds
    aryepiglottic folds, false or ventricular, and true
  48. most superior foldsa
  49. these run from the sidesof the epiglottis to the apex of the arytenoids
    aryepiglottic folds
  50. pulls the epiglottis backward and helps close the larynx
    aryepiglottic folds
  51. middle folds
    false or ventricular
  52. folds with limited movement
    false or ventricular
  53. these remain open during phonation and close only under pathilogical conditions
    false or ventricular folds
  54. space between the false and true folds
    larygeal ventricle
  55. this secreates mucus to moisten larynx 
    laryngeal ventricle
  56. most complex laryngeal valves
    true folds
  57. vocal folds consist of how many layers?
  58. layers of the true folds
    thryroarytenoid muscle, threee layers of mucus membrane surrounding the muscle, and a layer of epithelium covering mucus membrane
  59. outter most layer of the vocal folds
  60. the three layers of mucus membrane are called?
    lamina propria
  61. the superficial layer of the lamina propria is known as?
    its made up of? 
    this makes it?
    • reinkes space
    • elastic fibers=high degree of pliability
  62. intermediate layer of lamina propria is made of
    elastic fibers
  63. the 3rd layer of lamina propria
    deep layer made up of collagen and is less flexible
  64. main mass of the vocal folds
    thyroarytenoid muscle
  65. the five layers of the folds have been classified by?
    this is known as the?
    • stiffness
    • cover body model
  66. resistance of a structur being displpaced 
  67. ease in which a body can be displaced
  68. the cover consists of the 
    epithelium and superficial layer of lamina propria
  69. this encompasses the intermediate and deep layers of the lamina propria
    the transition or vocal ligament
  70. the structural complexity of the folds give rise to a sound wave that is
    acoustically complex which results in a rich resonant voice
  71. space between the true folds
  72. divisions of the glottis
    membranous glotts and cartilaginous
  73. this forms the anterior three fifths of the entire length of the glottis
    membranous glottis
  74. the vocal process forms the lateral edges of?
    which account for the posterior two fifths of the glottis
    cartilaginous glottis
  75. the membranous glottis is about ____ in males and ____ in females
    15mm and 12mm
  76. for quietbreathing the glottis is
    open in the paramedian position
  77. the glottis is open more widely when? 
    this is known as?
    • needing more air such as in exercise
    • forced abduction
  78. for phoation, the glottis is
    closed with the vocal folds in the median position
  79. whispering is producted wth
    the membranous glottis closed and cartilaginous open
  80. muscles of the larynx are divided into
    intrinsic and extrinsic
  81. the strap muscles are aka
    extrinsic muscles
  82. the extrinsic muscles have ____ of attachement to the ______ either at the ____ or _____, and to a __________
    • one
    • larynx
    • hyoid or another laryngeal cartilage
    • structure outside the larynx such as sternum or cranium
  83. the extrinsic muscles are subdivided into
    infrahyoid and suprahyoid 
  84. these have their external attachment point at structures below the hyoid including the sternum and scapula
  85. these have their attachments one point above the hyoid including the mandible and temporal bone
  86. then the infrahyoids contract, they pull the entire larynx
  87. contraction of the suprahyoids pulls the _____ which way?
    the entire larynx up 
  88. the large up and down movements of the larynx are due to the_____ and ______ and only occur when?
    infrahyoids and suprahyoids during swallow
  89. there are how many intrinsic laryngeal muscles?
  90. the origin and insertion of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
    inside larynx
  91. 2 of the 5 intrinsic muscles
    adduct the folds
  92. how many muscles abduct the folds
  93. how many muscles elongate and tense the folds
  94. how many muscles form the main body of the folds