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lidocaine causes what in mi?
cause of normal pressure hydrocephalus/
decreased csf absorption
rx for asymptomatic pagets/.
which eye pathology presents with loss of peripheral vision?
open angle glaucoma
what pathology has straight lines bent?
most effective way to lower bp in obese pt?
normal weight pts?
- loose weight
- eat fruits and vegetables
pneumonia caused by legionella?
- gi disturbance
conn's vs pheo?
- conns--tumor of adrenal cortex
- pheo--tumor of adrenal medulla
cause of hypochloremic, saline sensitive metabolic alkalosis?
volume contraction as in a hypovolemic state
rx for acute pancreatitis?
when are antibiotics used?
in necrotic pancreas- >30% necrosis
how is rotator cuff impigement differentiated from rotator cuff tear and adhesive capsulitis?
lidocaine makes impigement better
rx for actinomyces infection of the skin of neck/face?
patients after a renal transplant should receive what prophylactic antiobitics/antivirals?
what can cause proximal muscle weakness?
- thyroid disorders
- myesthenia gravis
- lambert eaton
Most effective therapy for hairy cell leukemia?
best therapy for maltoma without metastasis?
drugs that cause pancreatitis?
- furosemide, thiazide
- sulfasalazine, 5 asa
- azathioprine, l asparginase
causes of siadh?
definitive rx for closed angle glaucoma?
do you treat hcv with normal lft and no evidence of hepatic involvement
loss to follow up is what type of bias?
best indication of heart fialure?
when do you give hypertonic saline for hyponatremia?
when Na <120 otherwise fluid restriction
defects with cerebellum?
- facial muscle weakness
dx of dka?
- glucose >250
- ph <7.3
rx for cholangitis?
- if refractory
when is transhepatic cholangiography done?
when ercp fails
which antipsychotic gives the most eps effectgs?
how do you treat eps?
rx for cholelithiasis ?
- ursodeoxycholic acid
which one has loss of vision from periphery to center?
center to periphery?
- macular degeneration
the only cause of loss of vision that is painful?
closed angle glaucoma
what is postpericardiotomy syndrome?
pericardial effusion after surgery for congenital disorders
how long does
permanent afib last?
how is confounding bias controlled?
matching pts to their peers
what is the only testicular tumor that increases testosterone and estrogen
what testicular tumors have afp?
- teratoma --afp and beta hcg
- yolk sac--afp
- seminoma--beta hcg
differential for kaposi sarcoma in an HIV pt?
what 2 conditions make a study statistically signicicial?
- CI doesnt contain the null'
- p value <0.005
initial hematurai, rx?
throughot voiding hematuria
- glomuerular disease
- bladder or prostate
differences between infant of diabetic mother and beckwith wiedman syndorme?
- iodm---cuadal regression
- DUodenal atresia
beckwith--macroglassia, prominent occiput, omphalocele
- recurrent oral and genital ulcers
- erythema nodosum
most common pituitary tumor?
3 causes of dorsal column demyelinazation?
- b12 deficiency
- friedreich's ataxia
rx for inpatient pneumonia?
levo or moxifloxacin
what causes erythema induratum?
rx of mild allergic reactions to drugs?
rx to anaphylactic reactions to drugs?
rx for dermatitis herpetiformis?
what are the only rhythms you shock in pea?
how is confounding controlled?
how is observers bias controlled?
how is selection bias controlled
- picking a representative portion of the population
- achieving high rates of follow up
persistent st elevations are suggestive of ?
any kind of brain pathology can cause what electrolyte disturbance?
hyponatemia via SIADH
effects of hyperkalemia on ekg?
flat p wave, prolonged pr, wide qrs, peaked t wave
amphotericin is used for what two fungi?
antibiotics for pregnant woman?
- 1st gen cephalosporin
most common cause of congenital hypothyrodism?
muscle fatigue in arm, vertigo and blurry vision with the exercising arm?
subclavian steal syndrome
best initial study for aaa?
after reestablishing blood flow to an ischemic part limb, what must be done also?
fasiotomy to prevent compartment syndrome
rx for stanford a vs stanfor b aortic dissection?
- b-- medical management
management of cystocele?
- after 1 year--surgery
- surgery if symptomatic
rx for acyclovir resistant herpes?
how many bacteria needs to be present for asymptomatic bacteuria?
definition of mild preecclampsia vs severe preecclampsia?
- mild severe
- 140/90 160/110
- 1+, 2+ or 3 + or 5grams/24hrs
- 0.3 mg/24hrs
- no mental mental status change
- no liver enzymes liver enzymes
- no vision changes vision changes
types of urinary incontinenece?
- stress--kegell and pelvic floor exercises
- urge-- anticholinergics
- overflow--intermittent catherer
for all nephrotoxic drugs like vanco, aminoglycosides, acyclovir, cyclosporine what is done to prevent toxicity?
mostcommon cause of anemia in prematurity?
anemia of prematurity..low iron, high turnove..immature bone marrow
rx is iron
what gets damaged with a supracondylar fracture of humerus?
- median nerve
- brachial artery
after a screening 50 grams of glucose is positive for gestational diabetes, what 2 values of glucose have to be found in order to diagnose gestational diabetes?
during the 3 hours, any value over 140
what vitamin reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with measles?
what is the attrituable risk percent formula?
4 antipseudomonal drugs?
- pseudomonal penicillins
what kind of biopsy is done for melanoma?
excisional with narrow margins
when is meningococcal or pneumococcal vaccines give?
if asplenic--2 years old
2 causes of hypomagnesemia?
serum electrolyte abnormalties in alcoholics?
what electrolytes disturbances are seen with rta?
- low k with distal and proximal
- type IV--high K
mutliple ulcers and ulcers in the jejunum mean what disease?
best test for zollinger ellison syndrome?
- somatostatin receptor scintigraphy
- rx--local surgery
- metastatic--lifelong ppi
in a normally distributed standard curve, what is the relationship of mean, median and mode?
they are all equal
what cancers metastesize to the liver?
cancer sometimes penetrates benign liver
difference between heat exhaustion/cramp and heat stroke?
- exhaustion--ams, + rhabdo, high K and H+
what is the male equivalent developmental disorder of rett's?
Childhood disintegrative disorder
what kind of acid base abnormality is seen in pregnancy?
compensated respiratory alkalosis
what extra colonic malignancy is seen with hnpcc?
biggest complication of post term pregnancy?
what is the only cause of muscle pain does that does not cause muscle weakness and doesnt elevate ck?
fibromyaliga has pain points where?
- buttocks, trapesious
rx for asymptomatic congenital qt prolongation?
symptomatic congenital qt prolongation?
two risk factors for nenatal respiratory distress sydnrome?
- infant of a diabetic mother
best screening test for diabetic nephropathy?
most accurate test for a vipoma?
blood vip level
most common arrhythmia due to digitalis?
atrial tachy with av block
most accurate test for ze?
- high serum gastrin levels of h1 blockers or ppi
- high gastrin despite injection of secretin
what is chromogranin a used for?
confirming of neuroendocrine tumos
how does a thalamic stroke present?
emergency contraception drug?
ascaris vs trichinella infection
both gi symptoms and eosinophilia but trichinella has systemic effects and periorbital edema
what is cardiac index?
vitreous hemorrhage vs retinal detachemnt
both present the same but on opthalmosocpoe with retinal detachment you see the teach and fundus is visible