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How is experimental control demonstrated in a multiple baseline design and what
is the benefit of staggering the introduction of the intervention condition in the second baseline relative to its introduction in the first baseline?
by showing that Bx only changes after intervention. Staggering the intro minimizes the possibility of attributing the change in Bx to other extraneous variables
The authors state, “the comparison of performance across the behaviors at the
same points in time is critical to the multiple-baseline design” (p. 128).
Given this statement, how could one demonstrate a functional relationship
using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design?
continue to use the same format and intervention for multiple behaviors. With sufficient baselines functional relationships should be established.
Distinguish between the three variations of multiple baseline designs.
- Multiple baselines across
When using a multiple baseline design across behaviors or settings, what might
be a risk of keeping one behavior or setting in baseline for an extended
period of time? How do you know when to intervene with the second
When the data is stable. No trends
What is the advantage of using several baselines versus just two? What might be
a disadvantage of using several baselines (e.g., 5 or 6)?
establish a stronger relationship between the IV and a change in bx.
Inconsistent results weaken the relationship
When using a multiple baseline design, describe situations in which the
application of treatment would be partial.
when the first intervention is ineffective
What does interdependence of baselines refer to?
changes in one baseline effect bx in other baselines
When baseline phases are extended for a prolonged period, performance may
sometimes improve even before the intervention has been applied. What are
some reasons that may account for this?
interdependence of bxs
learning may have occured - changes do to observation or direct practice
social environment changes based on changes to Bx in the first intervention
How can problems with prolonged baselines be avoided?
staggered baseline assessment
What are the requirements for making comparisons across baselines in multiple
baseline designs? Explain the rationale for each requirement. (Will discuss further in class)
- each baseline must be independent
- demonstrate sensitivity of second baseline to the intervention
- When intervention is ongoing in one baseline the control condition must be ongoing in the others
overlap between control and intervention must be long enough to allow extraneous variables associated with the IV to emerge during control
When using a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants, why is it
problematic to align session data points from different participants above
the same x-axis numbers?
If there data points are occurring at the same frequency, you would just show one data point for all participants. You would not be able to determine if there were missing data from one participant
In Magee and Ellis (2000), examine the graph for Kyle and indicate whether
experimental control was demonstrated across each of the baselines.
Explain your answer.
No, because the bxs covaried. extinction in one behavior produced a change in the other behaviors
In the Cuvo and Klatt (1992) study, why do you suspect that baseline measures
were probed for some participants rather than conducted continuously
before treatment was implemented?
It minimizes exposure to the signs thusly minimizing familiarity during extended baseline procedures
How is a functional relationship demonstrated when using a changing criterion
when bx changes to match criterion over time
Kazdin states that when using a changing criterion design, “If performance meets
or surpasses the criterion, the consequence is provided.” If performance
surpasses the criterion shifts that have been set, can a functional relationship still be demonstrated? Why or why not?
Yes, if the surpassing level of Bx does not meet a the ceiling affect. It would require at least one additional criterion to be met for a functional relation to be established
Kid math problems 20 min 100 problem example
To evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure
in increasing fluency, would you use a changing criterion design?Why or why
not? If not, explain what kind of design you would use and why. What would your
baseline procedures be if you used a changing criterion design or any other
- NO, because there is no oppertunity to exceed criterion
- Yes, because gradually changing the criterion until the goal is met would be an effective way to increase the fluency of math problem completion.
- Baseline would look like. A child setting at a table with math problems...told to complete as many as she could in 20 minutes and that no matter how many she completed she would earn the reinforcer.
Treadmill plus money example
To evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure
in increasing cardiovascular endurance, would you use a changing criterion
design? Why or why not? If not, explain what kind of design you would use and
NO as is. There is no opportunity for them to exceed criterion
Yes, gradual change in criterion would lend itself to increasing cardiovascular endurance
When using a changing criterion design, what difficulties can arise when
evaluating unidirectional changes over the course of an intervention? How
can the demonstration of experimental control be enhanced?
Bx may change as a function of extraneous variables.
Bx may not follow criterion changes closely enough
By using a bidirectional design which includes a mini reversal
Kazdin states that bi-directional changes in performance can enhance the
demonstration of experimental control; if performance both increases and
decreases in accordance with the criterion shifts that have been set, what
is the clinical implication of this?
That when you implement a mini reversal it suggest that the treatment may not be maintained after the treatment is concluded
That the bx will conform to the requirements. No more effort than is necessary will likely be emitted. Thus what you require is what you will get
What is a potential problem with having too many shifts in criteria?
small changes in Bx due to too many shifts in criteria leave the intervention open to debate. especially if the bx does not closely follow the criterion
it may be difficult to keep criterion in effect for the behavior to stablize
What might be a benefit and drawback of setting the initial criterion level
slightly below or above the average baseline level of performance?
- the client is likely to meet criteria
- criteria may be too small to be detected or worthwile
What are three general guidelines for deciding the steps or changes in
proceed gradually in changing the criteria
Change criteria so that correspondence between criteria and bx can be detected
changes in criteria need not be equal over the course of the intervention
What is meant by the statement that there is a general relationship between the
variability in the client’s performance and the amount of change in the
criterion that may need to be made?
That changes in criterion should take the variability of the clients bx in the last sub-phase into consideration. High variability could indicate that a large criterion change may be possible
What is an advantage of the changing criterion design over the reversal and
multiple baseline design?
Does not require withdrawing treatment
reverting Bx to baseline is not necessary
Does not require witholding treatment from other people, settings, or bx
Bx can be shaped over time and the flexibility of the design is adventitious.
Discuss the three design factors important for successful implementation of the
changing criterion design?
- Length of baseline and treatment phases
- Phases should be long enough to rule out confounds Tx phases should differ in length or be preceded by a longer baseline
- Magnitude of changes in the criterion
- magnitude of changes should be large enough that change in Bx is detectable
- High variability = longer and larger criterion changes
- Number of treatment phases or change in criterion
- THe more the behavior mirrors criterion change the less phases are necessary
Incorporate a mini baseline
The authors suggest two formal design criteria. Briefly describe them and
indicate if they were met in both case studies (if not, describe why they
did not meet the criteria).
- Stable baselines and
- sloping in couter theraputic direction
- case 1 meets the requirement
- case 2 does not because baseline data is not stable
Are these studies true examples of changing criterion designs? Why or why not? Foxx
no, because the criterion is pre set and not adjusted due to the performance of the last phase.
baseline stability is an issue
- Dart throwing
- no, it was an afterthought
- they could reinforce successive approximations by offering incentive to throw from different level
- Blood Glucose
- No participant could not exceed the criterion