272 U5

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272 U5
2013-05-04 01:53:19
272 U5

272 U5
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  1. How is experimental control demonstrated in a multiple baseline design and what
    is the benefit of staggering the introduction of the intervention condition in the second baseline relative to its introduction in the first baseline?
    by showing that Bx only changes after intervention.  Staggering the intro minimizes the possibility of attributing the change in Bx to other extraneous variables
  2. The authors state, “the comparison of performance across the behaviors at the
    same points in time is critical to the multiple-baseline design” (p. 128).
    Given this statement, how could one demonstrate a functional relationship
    using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design?
    continue to use the same format and intervention for multiple behaviors.  With sufficient  baselines functional relationships should be established.
  3. Distinguish between the three variations of multiple baseline designs.
    • Multiple baselines across
    • settings
    • individuals 
    • behavior
  4. When using a multiple baseline design across behaviors or settings, what might
    be a risk of keeping one behavior or setting in baseline for an extended
    period of time? How do you know when to intervene with the second
    Maturation, learning

    When the data is stable.  No trends
  5. What is the advantage of using several baselines versus just two? What might be
    a disadvantage of using several baselines (e.g., 5 or 6)?
    establish a stronger relationship between the IV and a change in bx.

    Inconsistent results weaken the relationship
  6. When using a multiple baseline design, describe situations in which the
    application of treatment would be partial.
    when the first intervention is ineffective
  7. What does interdependence of baselines refer to?
    changes in one baseline effect bx in other baselines
  8. When baseline phases are extended for a prolonged period, performance may
    sometimes improve even before the intervention has been applied. What are
    some reasons that may account for this?
    interdependence of bxs

    learning may have occured - changes do to observation or direct practice

    social environment changes based on changes to Bx in the first intervention
  9. How can problems with prolonged baselines be avoided?
    periodic assessment 

    staggered baseline assessment
  10. What are the requirements for making comparisons across baselines in multiple
    baseline designs? Explain the rationale for each requirement. (Will discuss further in class)
    • each baseline must be independent
    • demonstrate sensitivity of second baseline to the intervention
    • When intervention is ongoing in one baseline the control condition must be ongoing in the others

    overlap between control and intervention must be long enough to allow extraneous variables associated with the IV to emerge during control
  11. When using a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants, why is it
    problematic to align session data points from different participants above
    the same x-axis numbers? 
    If there data points are occurring at the same frequency, you would just show one data point for all participants.  You would not be able to determine if there were missing data from one participant
  12. In Magee and Ellis (2000), examine the graph for Kyle and indicate whether
    experimental control was demonstrated across each of the baselines.
    Explain your answer.
    No, because the bxs covaried.  extinction in one behavior produced a change in the other behaviors
  13. In the Cuvo and Klatt (1992) study, why do you suspect that baseline measures
    were probed for some participants rather than conducted continuously
    before treatment was implemented?
    It minimizes exposure to the signs thusly minimizing familiarity during extended baseline procedures
  14. How is a functional relationship demonstrated when using a changing criterion
    when bx changes to match criterion over time
  15. Kazdin states that when using a changing criterion design, “If performance meets
    or surpasses the criterion, the consequence is provided.” If performance
    surpasses the criterion shifts that have been set, can a functional relationship still be demonstrated? Why or why not?
    Yes, if the surpassing level of Bx does not meet a the ceiling affect.  It would require at least one additional criterion to be met for a functional relation to be established
  16. Kid math problems 20 min 100 problem example
    To evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure
    in increasing fluency, would you use a changing criterion design?Why or why
    not? If not, explain what kind of design you would use and why. What would your
    baseline procedures be if you used a changing criterion design or any other
    • NO, because there is no oppertunity to  exceed criterion
    • Yes, because gradually changing the criterion until the goal is met would be an effective way to increase the fluency of math problem completion.  
    • Baseline would look like.  A child setting at a table with math problems...told to complete as many as she could in 20 minutes and that no matter how many she completed she would earn the reinforcer.
  17. Treadmill plus money example
    To evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure
    in increasing cardiovascular endurance, would you use a changing criterion
    design? Why or why not? If not, explain what kind of design you would use and
    NO as is.  There is no opportunity for them to exceed criterion

     Yes, gradual change in criterion would lend itself to increasing cardiovascular endurance
  18. When using a changing criterion design, what difficulties can arise when
    evaluating unidirectional changes over the course of an intervention? How
    can the demonstration of experimental control be enhanced? 
    Bx may change as a function of extraneous variables.

    Bx may not follow criterion changes closely enough

    By using a bidirectional design which includes a mini reversal
  19. Kazdin states that bi-directional changes in performance can enhance the
    demonstration of experimental control; if performance both increases and
    decreases in accordance with the criterion shifts that have been set, what
    is the clinical implication of this?
    That when you implement a mini reversal it suggest that the treatment may not be maintained after the treatment is concluded

    That the bx will conform to the requirements.  No more effort than is necessary will likely be emitted.  Thus what you require is what you will get
  20. What is a potential problem with having too many shifts in criteria?
    small changes in Bx due to too many shifts in criteria leave the intervention open to debate. especially if the bx does not closely follow the criterion

    it may be difficult to keep criterion in effect for the behavior to stablize
  21. What might be a benefit and drawback of setting the initial criterion level
    slightly below or above the average baseline level of performance?
    • benefit
    • the client is likely to meet criteria

    • Drawback
    • criteria may be too small to be detected or worthwile
  22. What are three general guidelines for deciding the steps or changes in
    proceed gradually in changing the criteria

    Change criteria so that correspondence between criteria and bx can be detected

    changes in criteria need not be equal over the course of the intervention
  23. What is meant by the statement that there is a general relationship between the
    variability in the client’s performance and the amount of change in the
    criterion that may need to be made?
    That changes in criterion should take the variability of the clients bx in the last sub-phase into consideration.  High variability could indicate that a large criterion change may be possible
  24. What is an advantage of the changing criterion design over the reversal and
    multiple baseline design?
    Does not require withdrawing treatment

    reverting Bx to baseline is not necessary

    Does not require witholding treatment from other people, settings, or bx

    Bx can be shaped over time and the flexibility of the design is adventitious.
  25. Discuss the three design factors important for successful implementation of the
    changing criterion design?
    • Length of baseline and treatment phases
    •   Phases should be long enough to rule out confounds Tx phases should differ in length or be preceded by a longer baseline   

    • Magnitude of changes in the criterion
    •   magnitude of changes should be large enough that change in Bx is detectable
    •   High variability = longer and larger criterion changes 

    • Number of treatment phases or change in criterion
    •   THe more the behavior mirrors criterion change the less phases are necessary

      Incorporate a mini baseline
  26. The authors suggest two formal design criteria. Briefly describe them and
    indicate if they were met in both case studies (if not, describe why they
    did not meet the criteria).
    • Stable baselines and
    • sloping in couter theraputic direction

    • case 1 meets the requirement
    •  case 2 does not because baseline data is not stable
  27. Are these studies true examples of changing criterion designs? Why or why not?  Foxx
    no, because the criterion is pre set and not adjusted due to the performance of the last phase.

    baseline stability is an issue

    • Dart throwing
    • no, it was an afterthought
    • they could reinforce successive approximations by offering incentive to throw from different level

    • Blood Glucose
    • No participant could not exceed the criterion