Chapter 8

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Chapter 8
2013-03-11 22:11:13
Nervous System

Spelling and Vocabulary
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  1. primary intracranial tumors
  2. neuropathy
  3. narcosis
  4. myelocele
  5. metastatic intracranial tumors
  6. intrathecal
  7. hyposthenia
  8. hematoma
  9. glioma
  10. dystonia
  11. cerebritis
  12. cerebellospinal
  13. bradyesthesia
  14. anesthesiologist
  15. analgesic
  16. ventriculostomy
  17. xx  spina bifida cystica
    back portion of 1 or more vertebrae is exposed
  18. xx   spina bifida occulta
    back portion of 1 or more vertebrae is not closed; dimpling & hair
  19. xx   sterotaxic neurosurgery
    precise destruction of brain tissue
  20. xx   sympathectomy
    to relieve chronic pain
  21. xx  Tay-Sachs disease
    enzyme deficiency; eastern European Jewish origin
  22. xx   tractotomy
    anterolateral pathway in the brain stem is surgically divided to relieve pain
  23. xx   transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
    cutaneous stimulation for pain relief
  24. xx   trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)
    severe unilateral pain along 5th cranial nerve
  25. xx   echoencephalography
    ultrasound used to analyze the intracranial structures of the brain
  26. xx   electroencephalography
    measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain and recorded through electrodes placed on the scalp
  27. xx   polysomnography
    sleep study
  28. xx   skull fracture (depressed) not spelling
    broken segment of the skull
  29. xx   spinal cord injuries not spelling
    severe injuries to spinal cord; impairment below level of injury.
  30. xx   epidural hematoma   not spelling
    collection of blood above dura mater
  31. xx   subdural hematoma   not spelling
    collection of blood below dura mater
  32. xx   Tension headache  not spelling
    effect face, scalp, upper back, neck
  33. xx   brain scan   not spelling
    for cerebral infarction, cerebral neoplasm, cerebral hemorrhage, brain abscess, aneurysms, cerebral thrombosis, and others
  34. xx   cerebrospinal fluid analysis  not spelling
    for bacteria, blood, malignant cells
  35. xx   CT scan of the brain  not spelling
    3-dimensional view of brain
  36. xx   MRI of the brain   not spelling
    fluid, soft tissue w/out radiation
  37. xx   craniotomy       voc
    surgical incision into the skull or cranium
  38. xx   encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain or spinal cord
  39. xx   degenerative disk
    deterioration of an intervertebral disk
  40. xx   cluster headache
    extreme pain around one eye
  41. xx   cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    loss of blood flow "stroke"
  42. xx   cerebral palsy
    permanent but not progressive lack of muscle control of voluntary muscles
  43. xx   cisternal puncture
    insertion of needle to drain CSF or obtain specimen (cerebrospinal fluid)
  44. xx   chordotomy
    pain control through laminectomy
  45. xx   Alzheimer's disease
    dementia 3 stages
  46. xx   amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    severe weaking, wasting of muscle groups
  47. xx   anencephaly
    absence of brain and spinal cord
  48. xx   Babinski's reflex
    stroking of sole of foot
  49. xx   Bell's palsy
    weakness or paralysis of muscles in face
  50. xx   brain abscess
    pus in the brain
  51. xx   carpal tunnel syndrome
    inflamed, swollen tendons
  52. xx   cerebral angiography
    cerebral vascular system x-ray
  53. xx   cerebral concussion     voc
    brief loss of consciousness
  54. xx   cerebral contusion     voc
    "bruise" of the brain tissue
  55. xx   epilepsy      voc
    irregular electrical activity of CNS; seizures
  56. xx   grand mal seizure
    epileptic seizures generalized
  57. xx   Guillain-Barre' syndrome
    polyneuritis; may follow gastrointestinal or respiratory infection
  58. xx  herniated disk
    rupture or herniation of a disk
  59. xx   Huntington's chorea
    inherited, rapid, involuntary movements, increasing dementia
  60. xx   hydrocephalus
    increase of cerebrospinal fluid on the brain
  61. xx   intracranial tumors
    malignant or benign; primary or secondary (metastatic)
  62. xx   laminectomy
    removal of bony arches of vertebrae to relieve pressure
  63. xx   lumbar puncture
    for removal of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
  64. xx   meningitis acute bacterial
    serious bacterial infection of the meninges
  65. xx   meningocele
    sac or hernia of the meninges
  66. xx   meningomyelocele
    sac or hernia through spinal cord and meninges
  67. xx   migraine headache
    recurring headache; arua
  68. xx   multiple sclerosis (MS)
    hardening of the myelin sheath of spinal cord and brain
  69. xx   myasthenia gravis
    chronic, progressive, severe skeletal muscle weakness
  70. xx   myelography
    to examine the spinal cord
  71. xx   neurectomy
    relieve pain in a localized area
  72. xx   neuroblastoma
    highly malignant tumor of sympathetic nervous system
  73. xx   Parkinson's disease
    degenerative, slowly progressive of nerve in brain stem
  74. xx   peripheral neuritis
    inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves
  75. xx   petit mal seizure
    small seizures absence seizures
  76. xx   pneumoenecphalography
    see one of the ventricles in the CNS
  77. xx   poliomyelitis
    infectious viral disease enters through upper respiratory tracts and affects spinal cord and brain motor neurons.
  78. xx   positron emission tomography (PET)
    images when substances are inhaled or injected
  79. xx   postpolio syndrome
    occurs at least 30 years after poliomyelitis
  80. xx   Reye's syndrome
    brain encephalopathy; children under 18
  81. xx   Romberg test
    evaluate cerebellar function and balance
  82. xx   shingles       voc
    acute viral infection in adults; pathway; eruptions; caused by the chicken pox virus
  83. voc   absence seizure
    small seizure; temp. loss of consciousness
  84. voc   acetylcholine
    chemical substance facilitates xmission of nerve impulses (neurotransmitters)
  85. voc   afferent nerves
    • xmitters of nerve impulses toward CNS;
    • (sensory nerves)
  86. voc   agnosia
    loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli
  87. voc   agraphia
    inability to convert one's thoughts into writing
  88. voc   alexia
    inability to understand written words
  89. voc   analgesia
    without sensitivity to pain
  90. voc   anesthesia
    without feeling or sensation
  91. voc   aneurysm
    localized dilatation in a wall of an artery
  92. voc   aphasia
    inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs
  93. voc   apraxia
    inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly
  94. voc   arachnoid membrane
    weblike middle layer of the 3 membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord
  95. voc   astrocyte
    star shaped neuroglial cell found in CNS
  96. voc   astrocytoma
    tumor of brain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes
  97. voc   ataxia
    without muscular coordination
  98. voc   aura
    sensation an individual experiences prior to the onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure
  99. voc   autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary vital functions of the body - SNS somatic nervous system and PNS peripheral nervous system
  100. voc   axon
    transports nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body.
  101. voc   blood-brain barrier
    protective characteristic of the capillary walls of the brain that prevent passage of harmful substances from the blood steam into the brain tissue or CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
  102. voc   brain stem   not spelling
    connects the cerebral hemisphere to the spinal cord
  103. voc   bradykinesia
    abnormally slow movement
  104. voc   Brudzinski's sign
    pos. sign of meningitis
  105. voc   burr hole
    hole drilled into skull
  106. cauda equina
    lower end of spinal cord. resembling a horse's tail
  107. voc   causalgia
    acute burning pain along path of peripheral nerve.
  108. voc   cell body   not spelling
    contains nucleus and cytoplasm
  109. voc   Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • 2 main division 
    •    brain
    •    spinal cord
  110. voc   cephalalgia
    pain in the head; headache
  111. voc   cerebral cortex
    thin outer layer of nerve tissue (gray matter); covers surface of cerebrum
  112. voc   cerebellum
    responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement. located behind brain stem
  113. voc   cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    fluid flowing through brain and around spinal cord. protects from physical blows and impacts.
  114. voc   cerebrum
    • largest and uppermost part of brain
    • controls: consciousness
    •              memory
    •              sensations
    •              emotions
    •              voluntary movements
  115. voc   Cheyne-Stokes respirations
    abnormal patterns of breathing
  116. voc   coma
    deep sleep, cannot be aroused and doesn't respond to external stimuli
  117. voc   comatose
    pertains to being in a coma
  118. voc   contracture
    permanent shortening of a muscle causing joint to remain in abnormal position resulting in physical deformity
  119. voc   convolution
    • elevated fold of the surface of the cerebrum 
    • (aka gyrus)
  120. voc   deficit   not spelling
    any deficiency or variation of the normal
  121. voc   demenitia
    progressive irreversible mental disorder; deteriorating memory, judgement, and ability to think
  122. voc   demyelination
    destruction or removal of the myelin sheath that covers a nerve or nerve fiber
  123. voc   dendrite
    projection extends from the nerve cell body that receives  impulses and conducts them on to the cell
  124. voc   diencephalon
    • between the cerebrum and the midbrain. consists of the 
    •    thalamus
    •    hypothalamus
    •    pineal gland
  125. voc   diplopia
    • double vision
    • (aka ambiopia)
  126. voc   dura mater
    outermost of the 3 membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and the spinal cord
  127. voc   dyslexia
    impairment of the ability to read
  128. voc   dysphasia
    difficult speach
  129. voc   efferent nerves
    • xmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS
    • (aka motor nerves)
  130. voc   embolism
    abnormal condition in which a blood clot(embolism) becomes lodged n a blood vessel
  131. voc   epidural space
    space immediately outside the dura mater
  132. voc   fissure
    deep grove on surface of an organ
  133. voc   fontanelle or fontanel
    soft spot
  134. voc   gait
    style of walking
  135. voc   ganglion
    knotlike mass of nerve tissue outside of brain or spinal cord
  136. voc   gray matter   not spelling
    part of nervous system consisting of axons not covered with myelin sheath, giving gray appearance
  137. voc   gyrus
    one of the many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum
  138. voc   hemiparesis
    slight or partial paralysis on 1/2 of the body
  139. voc   hemiplegia
    paralysis on 1/2 of the body
  140. voc   herpes zoster
    acute infection caused by same virus of chicken pox.  (aka shingles)
  141. voc   hyperesthesia   not spelling
    excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli
  142. voc   hyperkinesis   not spelling
    excessive muscular movement and physical activity; hyperactivity
  143. voc   hypothalamus
    • located below the thalamus controls
    •   body temperature
    •   sleep
    •   appetite
  144. voc   interneurons
    connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves
  145. voc   Kernig's sign   not spelling
    diagnostic sign 4 meningitis
  146. voc   kinesiology
    study of muscle movement
  147. voc   lethargy
    state of being sluggish
  148. voc   longitudinal fissure
    deep groove in the middle of the cerebrum
  149. voc   medulla oblongata
    • 1 of the 3 parts of the brain stem. most essential part.  controls
    •   cardiac
    •   vasomotor
    •   respiratory centers
    • of the brain
  150. voc   meninges
    3 layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
  151. voc   microglia
    small neuroglial cells that engulf cellular debris, waste products, and pathogens within nerve tissue
  152. voc   midbrain
    uppermost part of the brain stem
  153. voc   motor nerves
    xmitters of nerve impulses away from CNS. (aka efferent nerves)
  154. voc   myelin sheath
    protective sheath covers axons. electrical insulator and helps speed the conduction of nerve impulses.
  155. voc   narcolepsy
    uncontrolled, attacks of sleep
  156. voc   nerve   not spelling
    cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that xmit impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body.  macroscopic
  157. voc   nerve block   not spelling
    injection of local anesthetic aling the course of a nerve or nerves (aka conduction anesthesia)
  158. voc   neuralgia
    severe, sharp, spasmlike pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves
  159. voc   neuritis
    inflammation of the nerves
  160. voc   neuroglia
    supporting tissue of the nervous system
  161. voc   neurologist
    physician specializing in the treatment of the disease and disorders of the nervous system
  162. voc   neurology
    study of the nervous system and its disorders
  163. voc   neuron
    nerve cell
  164. voc   neurosurgeon
    physician who specializes in the surgery of the nervous system
  165. voc   neurosurgery
    any surgery involving the nervous system
  166. voc   neurotransmitter
    chemical substance within the body that activates or inhibits the xmission of nerve impulses at synapses
  167. voc   nuchal rigidity
    rigidity of the neck
  168. voc   occlusion
  169. voc   oligodendrocytes
    type of neuroglial cell found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system
  170. voc   palliative
  171. voc   paraplegia
    paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk
  172. voc   parasympathetic nerves
    • nerves of the ANS regulate essential involuntary body functions 
    •   slowing down heart rate
    •   relaxing sphincters
  173. voc   parasympathomimetic
    "to mimic" the parasympathetic nerves
  174. voc   paresthesia
    sensation of numbness or tingling
  175. voc   peripheral nervous system
    part of the nervous system outside the CNS, consisting of 12 prs of cranial nerves and 31 prs of spinal nerves
  176. voc   phagocytosis
    certain cells engolf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris
  177. voc   pia mater
    innermost of the 3 membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and the spinal cord
  178. voc   pineal body
    small cone shaped.  thought 2 b invloved n regulating the body's biological clock and produces melatonin (aka pineal gland)
  179. voc   plexus
    network of interwoven nerves
  180. voc   pons
    acts as a bridge to connect the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum to the upper portions of the brain
  181. voc   quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four extremities and trunk
  182. voc   radiculotomy   not spelling
    surgical resection of a spinal nerve root (to relieve pain) rhizotomy
  183. voc   receptor
    sensory nerve ending
  184. voc   rhizotomy
    surgical resection of a spinal nerve root to relieve pain
  185. voc   sciatica
    inflammation of the sciatic nerve.  characterized by pain along the course of the nerve
  186. voc   sensory
    pertaining to sensation
  187. voc   sensory nerves
    xmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS (aka afferent nerves)
  188. voc   shunt   not spelling
    tube or passage that diverts/redirects body fluid from on cavity/vessel to another
  189. voc   somatic nervous system SNS
    part of the PNS that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions
  190. voc   stimulus
    any agent/factor capable of initiating a nerve impulse
  191. voc   stupor
    state of lethargy
  192. voc   subarachnoid space
    located just under the arachnoid membrane that contains cerebrospinal fluid
  193. voc   subdural space
    located just beneath the dura mater that contains serous fluid
  194. voc   sulcus
    depression/shallow groove on the surface of an organ
  195. voc   sympathetic nerves
    • nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions
    •   increased heart rate
    •   constricting blood vessels
    •   raised blood pressure
  196. voc   sympathomimetic
    "to mimic" the sympathetic nerves
  197. voc   synapse
    between 1 nerve and the other through which nerve impulses are xmitted
  198. voc   syncope
  199. voc   thalamus
    receives all sensory stimuli except smell and relays to cerebral cortex
  200. voc   thrombosis
    abnormal condition which clot develops in blood vessel
  201. voc   tonic-clonic seizure
    seizure characterized by presence of muscle contracting then relaxing causing jerking movement in the body.
  202. voc   ventricle
    (brain)  small hollow within brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  203. voc   whiplash   not spelling
    injury to cervical vertebrae and support structures due to sudden back and forth jerking movement of the head and neck
  204. voc   white matter   not spelling
    part of the nervous system consisting of axons covered with myelin sheath giving a white appearance