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what is a joint?
place of contact between bones, bone and cartilage, or bones and teeth.
Structural Classification: Fibrous Joint
- has no joint cavity
- bones held together by dense connective tissue
Structural Classification: Cartilaginous Joint
- has no joint cavity
- joined by cartilage
Structural Classification: Synovial joint
- fluid- filled joint cavity seperating surfaces of bones
- surface enclosed within connective tissue
- bones attached by ligaments
Functional classification: Synarthrosis
immobile joint (fibrous or cartilaginous)
Functional classification: Amphiarthrosis
- slightly mobile joint
- (fibrous or cartilaginous)
Functional classification: Diarthrosis
- freely mobile joint
- all synovial joint
what determines mobility and stability of each joint?
structure of each joint
Fibrous joints are connected by ____ ____ ____ _____
dense regular connective tissue
fibrous joints have no ____ _____
Fibrous joints can be either ____ or only _____ _____
immobile or slightly mobile
what are the 3 most common types of fibrous joints?
what is gomphoses?
peg in a socket= teeth
what are sutures?
- immobile fibrous joints
- found in the skull
- irregular edges
- ossified in older adult
what are syndesmoses?
- joined by long strand of dense connective tissue
- between radius, ulna, tibia, and fibula
- provides a pivot
- bound by interosseous membrane
cartilaginous joints lack a ______ ______
cartilaginous joints can be _____ or _______
- immobile or slightly mobile
- synchondroses or symphyses
what is synchondrosis?
- bones joined by hyaline cartilage
- all immobile (synarthroses)
what is symphysis?
- pad of fibrocartilage between articulating bones
what is the largest and most complex diarthrosis?
knee joint is primarly a ____ joint
what are the two seperate articulations of the knee joint?
- tibiofemoral joint
- patellofemoral joint
where can you find tibiofemoral joints?
between condyles of femur and condyles of tibia
where can you find patellofemoral joints?
between patella and patellar surface of femur
what muscle tendon passes over knee's anterior surface?
quadceps femoris muscle tendon
the patellar ligament extends from _____ to _________
- tibial tuberosity
in the knee joint, what reinforces lateral surface of joint? This also extends from ____ to _____. Prevents _______ of leg at the knee.
- fibular collateral ligament
what reinforces the medial surface of knee joint? Extends from _____ to ______ and prevents ________ of leg at the knee?
- tibial collateral ligament
what partially stabilize joint medially and laterally?
medial meniscus and lateral meniscus
what part of the knee joint limit anterior and posterior movement of femur on tibia?
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) extends from...
posterior femur to anterior tibia
what part of the knee joint prevents hyperEXTENTION
Posterior cruciate ligament runs from...
anterioinferior femur to posterior tibia
what prevents hyper flexion?
PCL (posterior Cruciate Ligament)
when do joints start to develop?
by 6th week of development