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List and describe the essential elements of the scientific process.
- Making observations
- Formulating a hypothesis
- Experimental Design
- Data Collection
- Data Analysis
- Make Conclusions
What is a hypothesis?
Explanation based on limited evidence
Know how to generate hypotheses based on observations.
- Alternate: If the fish are upstream, then they will be bigger.
- Null: If the fish are upstream, then they will NOT be bigger.
Explain the importance of repetition in a scientific investigation.
All good experiments are repeated to ensure the results are consistent each time it is performed. Errors due to variability differences in the test subjects, measurements, and external or unforeseen conditions can be reduced.
Explain what a control is, identify a control, and describe the importance of having a control.
- The sole group not subjected to the changes in the independent variable.
- It is used to eliminate the possibility that other factors not taken into account are affected the experimental outcome.
Explain the importance of testing only 1 variable at a time.
Ensures that only 1 variable is responsible for the change in the outcome.
Define what an organic molecule is, list the types of organic molecules, and give examples of each.
- Basic building blocks of cells. They are made up of a carbon backbone, H, O, N, and others.
- Carbohydrates - Glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose
- Lipids - Fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol
- Proteins - Silk, insulin
- Nucleic Acids - DNA, RNA
Identify/set up positive and negative controls and distinguish between the results of the organic molecule tests.
- Negative control = The reagent and water
- Positive control = The reagent and a type of organic molecule (glucose, sucrose, starch)
- If the positive control changes to a different color than the negative control, then the organic molecule is present.
List major distinguishing features (size, structure, etc.) of cells for each domain/kingdom.