Lecture #3

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  1. Pulmonary Ventilation
    the mechanical process of movingĀ  are in and out of the lungs
  2. External Respiration
    serves to oxygenate the blood and eliminate carbon dioxide in the lungs
  3. internal respiration
    responsible for delivering O2 to the cells and removing carbon dioxide from the cell
  4. cellular respiration/metabolism
    the breaking down of glucose in the presence of O2,producing high amounts of energy in the form of ATP, and releasing CO2 and water and a by-product
  5. Upper Airway
    • extends from the nose and mouth to the cricoid cartilage, the most inferior portion of the larynx
    • includes the nose and mouth, pharynx(naso and oro), trachea and esophagus, epiglottis, larynx, thyroid cartilage, adam's apple, cricoid cartillage
  6. Lower Airway
    • extends from the cricoid cartilage at the lower edge of the larynx to the alveoli of the lungs
    • includes the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, lungs, diaphragm
  7. parts of the lungs
    • alveoli (air sacs in the lungs)
    • pleura (layer of connective tissue in the lungs
    • visceral pleura (innermost layer of connective tissue in lungs)
    • parietal pleura (thicker, more elastic layer that adheres to the inner portion of the chest wall)
    • pleural space (small space at negative pressure containing small amount of fluid)
    • serous fluid (acts as lube to reduce friction when layers of the pleura rub during breathing)
  8. Signs of mild to moderate hypoxia
    • tachypnea
    • dyspnea
    • pale, cool, clammy skin
    • tachycardia
    • elevation in blood pressure
    • restlessness and agitation
    • disorientation and confusion (from high carbon dioxide lvls in the blood)
    • headache
  9. signs of severe hypoxia
    • tachypnea
    • dypsnea
    • cyanosis
    • tachycardia that may lead to dysrhythmias and eventual bradycardia
    • confusion
    • loss of coordination
    • sleepy appearance
    • head bobbing with droopy eyelids
    • slow reaction time
    • altered metal status
  10. Blood pressure
    pressure that is exerted on the walls of the arteries by the blood flowing through them
  11. systolic blood pressure
    • the amount of pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries during contraction and ejection of blood from the left ventricle
    • pulse is an assessment of the systolic blood pressure
  12. diastolic blood pressure
    • the amount of pressure on the artery walls while the ventricle is at rest and NOT contracting
    • related to the amount of blood in the artery and the diameter of the artery
  13. normal pulse rate for elderly
  14. normal pulse rate for adults
  15. normal pulse rate in adolescent
  16. normal pulse rate in child (5-12)
  17. normal pulse rate in child (1-5)
  18. normal pulse rate in infant
  19. normal pulse rate in newborn
  20. pulse
    a pressure wave generated by the contraction of the left ventricle
  21. tachypnea
    increased respiratory rate
  22. dyspnea
    shortness of breath
  23. definition of hypoxia
    insufficient O2 in the tissues
  24. adequate breathing rate in adults
    12-20 breaths per minute
  25. adequate breathing rate in children
    15-30 breaths per minute
  26. adequate breathing rate in infants
    25-50 breaths per minutes
  27. when do you use the recovery position?
    for unconscious pts with no suspected spine injury
  28. how do you measure rigid suction catheters?
    from the corner of the mouth to the ear lobe
  29. when do you stop suctioning the airway?
    when the airway is clear
  30. how do you measure an OPA?
    corner of the mouth to the bottom of the ear lobe
  31. when do you use an OPA?
    pts who are unconscious with no gag reflex
  32. steps for inserting an OPA
    • measure proper size (corner of mouth to bottom of ear lobe)
    • open pt's mouth
    • in adults, insert OPA upside down
    • insert until flange rests on pt's lips
  33. when do you use an NPA (indications)?
    pt's with decreased LOC and sonorous respirations who will not accept an OPA
  34. how do you measure for an NPA?
    tip of the nose to the bottom of the earlobe
  35. when would you not use an NPA (contraindication)
    • maxillary trauma
    • nasal trauma
    • suspected skull fracture
    • resistance encountered during insertion
  36. steps for inserting an NPA
    • select proper size
    • use water soluble gel to lube NPA
    • insert into pt's right nare with beveled edge towards septum
    • insert until flange is flush with pt's nose
  37. l
Card Set:
Lecture #3
2013-04-16 18:58:51
Airway Management Respiration Artificial Ventilation Baseline Vitals Monitoring Devices

Thurston County EMT
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