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this muscle arises from the lateral border of the cricoid and muscular process of the arytenoids?
intrinsic or extrinsic?
adducts or abducts?
- lateral cricoarytenoid
adductor or abductor?
paired or unpaired?
the two bundles of muscle fibers?
what happens when it contracts?
- transverse and oblique
- glides the arytenoids toward each other medially closing posterior of the glottis
the only abductor of the vocal folds?
whats its shape?
paired or unpaired?
origin and insertion?
- posterior cricoarytenoid
- fan shaped
- posterior of the cricoid and inserts into muscular process of each arytenoid
the paired cricothyroid two sets of muscle fibers?
- pars recta and pars oblique
- pitch changer-streches and elongates the folds
the vocalis muscle?
its two sets of fibers?
- the thyroarytenoid
- thyromuscularis and thyrovocalis
to initiate vocal fold vibration, the folds must close. this is achieved by the the LCA and IA which exert a force called
the most widely accepted model of voice production
how to the folds open and close?
open from bottom to top and close from bottom to top
the slight time lag between the opening and closing of the inferior and superior portions of the folds
vertical phase difference
the timing lag between the opening and closing of the folds back to front?
how do they open and close anteriorly and posteriorly?
- longitudinal phase difference
- open posterior to anterior and close anterior to posterior
the timing differences give the fold vibrations an undulating, wavelike motion known as
the mucosal wave
rate of vibration of the folds depends on
length, mass and tension
the greater the length and mass of the folds and less tension and stiffness
the slower they will vibrate thus a lower pitch
Fo is determined primarily by the_____ of the folds
adult female Fo
intensity is controlled by
regulating subglottal pressure through increasing/decreasing medial compression
the difference between the subglottal pressure and supraglottal is the driving pressure forcing air to flow through the glottis is known as
the minimum pressure subglottally needed to set the folds into vibration is
phonation threshold pressure
phonation threshold pressure for conversational speech
3 cm H2O-6
at higher Fo, the folds are thinner and stiffer, so ____ pressure is needed to set them into vibration
pressure for a louder yell needs to be about ____ cm H2O
harmonics contribute to the _____ of voice
the spectrum of the human voice
the glottal spectrum
the glottal spectrum would represent the sound you hear where?
at the level of the larynx
the glottal spectrum shows the Fo is the ______ frequency with the _______ amplitude
there is _____ acoustic energy in the lower frequencies of voice and ______ in the higher
there are about ____ harmonics in the human voice with at least some acoustic energy
the distance in harmonic frequencies in a complex sound
if one has a Fo of 100 Hz, the harmonics would be.....
200, 300, 400, 500 up to about 4000 to 5000
if one changes their Fo to 200 Hz, the harmonics would be....
400, 600, 800
T or F
there are always small fluctuations in frequency and amplitude, resulting in almost, but not quite periodic sound
the timing variablitly between cycles of vibration is called
frequency perturbation or jitter
the variability between cycles of amplitude
amplitude perturbation or shimmer
cycle-to-cyle variations in frequency and amplitude are caused by what factors?
neurologic, biomechanic, aerodynamic, and acoustic
the very lowest level of jitter is about?
the norms range from ___ to ___
children and elderly have _____ jitter values then younger adults
normal shimmer values
below 0.5 dB
if vocal fold mass is increased by a cyst or nodule, the Fo will _______ and vibration will be less ________ and jitter and shimmer levels will ________
decrease; periodic; increase
this refers to a particular part of the range of the range of pitches of voice or instrument
midrange pitches are ______ registers and higher range are ______ registers and a mixture of the two are _____ registers
chest; flasetto; head
in terms of voice production, the range of Fo is usually divided into these three registers
pulse, modal and falsetto
pulse register refers to ......
also called .......
- very low Fo, creaky, popping sound
- vocal or glottal fry or creaky voice
flasetto is a very _____ voice
high; loft register
register most common in speech
in modal register, the ratio of time the folds are closed compared to opening and closing is ____.
in pulse whats the ratio?
- about 90% closed and opening and closing about 10%
in this register, the folds are very long and stiff, thin along the edges and somewhat bow shaped
people may drop down to _____ register at the end of a sentence
when the folds are adducted too tightly with too much medial comprression is....
why would this be?
- vocal abuse to neurological disease such as spasmodic dysphonia
vocal folds that do not adduct as tighly as they should is...
- neurological conditions to misuse
with an abundance of terminology of voice characteristics, there is a problem with clinical management of voice disorders because the terms are highly _____
what are the 6 specifiable parameters of voice production that contribute to a clear, normal voice?
- 1. maximum frequency range
- 2. speaking Fo
- 3. max phonation time
- 4. minimum-max intensity at various Fo levels
- 5. periodicity of vibration
- 6. noise generated by turbulent airflow
the longest time one can sustain a vowel in one breath
max phonation time
an adult should be able to sustain a phonation for about
noise in the voice signal
an abnormal voice quality
the three most accepted voice qualities are
brethiness, hoarseness, roughness
vocal tone that sounds aspirated
raspy sound in the voice with a low pitch is
a combonation of rough and beathy voice is
breathy or rough voices may be characterized by where the _______ occurs on the glottal spectrum
additive or spectral noise
the person with a breathy voice uses ____ to ___ times as much the normal amount of air per second
3 to 4
a measure of the harmonic sound to noise in the voice
harmonics to noise ratio
the higher the HNR is, the ____ harmonic components
the lower the HNR, the more _____ there is in the voice
a method to examine vocal fold function
electroglottography or laryngography or EGG
a breathy voice signal has a ______-frquency energy than non-breathy