shs 2.2

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Author:
nllutzy
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206407
Filename:
shs 2.2
Updated:
2013-03-11 18:43:17
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speech science
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speech science ch 6
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  1. this  muscle arises from the lateral border of the cricoid and muscular process of the arytenoids?
    intrinsic or extrinsic?
    adducts or abducts?
    • lateral cricoarytenoid
    • intrinsic
    • adductor
  2. interarytenoid-
    adductor or abductor?
    paired or unpaired?
    the two bundles of muscle fibers?
    what happens when it contracts?
    • adductor
    • unpaired
    • transverse and oblique
    • glides the arytenoids toward each other medially closing posterior of the glottis
  3. the only abductor of the vocal folds?
    whats its shape?
    paired or unpaired?
    origin and insertion?
    • posterior cricoarytenoid
    • fan shaped
    • paired
    • posterior of the cricoid and inserts into muscular process of each arytenoid
  4. the paired cricothyroid two sets of muscle fibers?
    function?
    • pars recta and pars oblique
    • pitch changer-streches and elongates the folds
  5. the vocalis muscle?
    its two sets of fibers?
    • the thyroarytenoid
    • thyromuscularis and thyrovocalis
  6. to initiate vocal fold vibration, the folds must close. this is achieved by the the LCA and IA which exert a force called
    medial compression
  7. the most widely accepted model of voice production
    myoelastic-aerodynamic theory
  8. how to the folds open and close?
    open from bottom to top and close from bottom to top
  9. the slight time lag between the opening and closing of the inferior and superior portions of the folds
    vertical phase difference
  10. the timing lag between the opening and closing of the folds back to front?
    how do they open and close anteriorly and posteriorly?
    • longitudinal phase difference
    • open posterior to anterior and close anterior to posterior
  11. the timing differences give the fold vibrations an undulating, wavelike motion known as
    the mucosal  wave
  12. rate of vibration of the folds depends on
    length, mass and tension
  13. the greater the length and mass of the folds and less tension and stiffness
    the slower they will vibrate thus a lower pitch
  14. Fo is determined primarily by the_____ of the folds
    tension
  15. adult female Fo
    180-250 Hz
  16. adult male Fo
    80-150 Hz
  17. intensity is controlled by
    regulating subglottal pressure through increasing/decreasing medial compression
  18. the difference between the subglottal pressure and supraglottal is the driving pressure forcing air to flow through the glottis is known as
    transglottal pressure
  19. the minimum pressure subglottally needed to set the folds into vibration is
    phonation threshold pressure
  20. phonation threshold pressure for conversational speech
    3 cm H2O-6
  21. at higher Fo, the folds are thinner and stiffer, so ____ pressure is needed to set them into vibration
    more
  22. pressure for a louder yell needs to be about ____ cm H2O
    50
  23. harmonics contribute to the _____ of voice
    quality
  24. the spectrum of the human voice
    the glottal spectrum
  25. the glottal spectrum would represent the sound you hear where?
    at the level of the larynx
  26. the glottal spectrum shows the Fo is the ______ frequency with the _______ amplitude
    lowest; greatest
  27. there is _____ acoustic energy in the lower frequencies of voice and ______ in the higher
    more; less
  28. there are about ____ harmonics in the human voice with at least some acoustic energy
    40
  29. the distance in harmonic frequencies in a complex sound
    harmonic spacing
  30. if one has a Fo of 100 Hz, the harmonics would be.....
    200, 300, 400, 500 up to about 4000 to 5000
  31. if one changes their Fo to 200 Hz, the harmonics would be....
    400, 600, 800
  32. T or F
    there are always small fluctuations in frequency and amplitude, resulting in almost, but not quite periodic sound
    T
  33. the timing variablitly between cycles of vibration is called
    frequency perturbation or jitter
  34. the variability between cycles of amplitude
    amplitude perturbation or shimmer
  35. cycle-to-cyle variations in frequency and amplitude are caused by what factors?
    neurologic, biomechanic, aerodynamic, and acoustic
  36. the very lowest level of jitter is about?
    the norms range from ___ to ___
    • 0.2 %
    • 0.2 to 1
  37. children and elderly have _____ jitter values then younger adults
    higher
  38. normal shimmer values
    below 0.5 dB
  39. if vocal fold mass is increased by a cyst or nodule, the Fo will _______ and vibration will be less ________ and jitter and shimmer levels will ________
    decrease; periodic; increase
  40. this refers to a particular part of the range of the range of pitches of voice or instrument
    register
  41. midrange pitches are ______ registers and higher range are ______ registers and a mixture of the two are _____ registers
    chest; flasetto; head
  42. in terms of voice production, the range of Fo is usually divided into these three registers
    pulse, modal and falsetto
  43. pulse register refers to ......
    also called .......
    • very low Fo, creaky, popping sound
    • vocal or glottal fry or creaky voice
  44. flasetto is a very _____ voice 
    aka ____
    high; loft register
  45. register most common in speech
    modal
  46. in modal register, the ratio of time the folds are closed compared to opening and  closing is ____.
    in pulse whats the ratio?
    • equal
    • about 90% closed and opening and closing about 10%
  47. in this register, the folds are very long and stiff, thin along the edges and somewhat bow shaped
    falsetto
  48. people may drop down to _____ register at the end of a sentence
    pulse
  49. when the folds are adducted too tightly with too much medial comprression is....
    why would this be?
    • hyperadducted
    • vocal abuse to neurological disease such as spasmodic dysphonia
  50. vocal folds that do not adduct as tighly as they should is...
    why?
    • hypoadducted
    • neurological conditions to misuse
  51. with an abundance of terminology of voice characteristics, there is a problem with clinical management of voice disorders because the terms are highly _____
    subjective
  52. what are the 6 specifiable parameters of voice production that contribute to a clear, normal voice?
    • 1. maximum frequency range
    • 2. speaking Fo
    • 3. max phonation time
    • 4. minimum-max intensity at various Fo levels
    • 5. periodicity of vibration
    • 6. noise generated by turbulent airflow
  53. the longest time one can sustain a vowel in one breath
    max phonation time
  54. an adult should be able to sustain a phonation for about
    15-25 secs
  55. noise in the voice signal
    additive noise
  56. an abnormal voice quality
    dysphonia
  57. the three most accepted voice qualities are
    brethiness, hoarseness, roughness
  58. vocal tone that sounds aspirated
    breathy
  59. raspy sound in the voice with a low pitch is
    roughness
  60. a combonation of rough and beathy voice is
    hoarse
  61. breathy or rough voices may be characterized by where the _______ occurs on the glottal spectrum
    additive or spectral noise
  62. the person with a breathy voice uses ____ to ___ times as much the normal amount of air per second
    3 to 4
  63. a measure of the harmonic sound to noise in the voice
    harmonics to noise ratio
  64. the higher the HNR is, the ____ harmonic components
    more
  65. the lower the HNR, the more _____ there is in the voice
    noise
  66. a method to examine vocal fold function
    electroglottography or laryngography or EGG
  67. a breathy voice signal has a ______-frquency energy than non-breathy
    high

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