Archeology 112 Post Midterm 2

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Archeology 112 Post Midterm 2
2013-04-08 13:00:10
Arch post midterm

Post Midterm 2
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  1. Agriculture in Mesoamerica
    • -Mesoamerica is the region consisting of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, western Honduras and western Nicaragua 
    • -provides earliest evidence of food production in the NEW world
    • -triumvirate of maize, beans and squash
    • -what I would call corn is actually called maize in this class
  2. Squash in Mesoamerica
    • -domesticated in mexico 10-8KYA
    • -found first in the highlands
    • -had larger seeds, thicker rinds and bigger stems than wild squash
    • -domesticated by seedbed selection(elimination of smaller and slower germinating plants)
  3. Maize in Mesoamerica
    • -domesticated from wild teosinte around 7KYA
    • -wild teosinte is very small and has triangular looking edible portions
    • -found in coastal wetlands
    • -substantial shift towards domestication from 7.1-6.7KYA found from stable isotope dating from human remains
  4. Agriculture in other areas of Mesoamerica
    • -mexico had strong reliance of wild beans around 10KYA and evidence of domestication by 4.5KYA, but quite likely earlier
    • -domestication of sunflower in coastal wetlands of mexico by 4.5KYA
    • -cacao plant(chocolate) domesticated in Honduras by the Maya 3KYA, although likely consumed only as hot chocolate by higher social classes
  5. Plant Agriculture in South America
    • -no single center of domestication
    • -each level of altitude has distinct differences
    • -earliest evidence is from phytoliths(rigid microscopic cell components)
    • -starch grains discovered in cooking and storage vessels
    • -domestication of gourd in Ecuador 10KYA
    • -large reliance on many different kinds of root crops domesticated in Andean highlands(oca, maca, yacom, ulluco, arracacha)
    • -evidence of introduction of domesticated corn in ecuador 4.2KYA
    • -lima beans independently domesticated 5KYA
    • -domesticated cotton in Peru from 5.5KYA
    • -domesticated peanuts 7.6KYA
  6. Animal Agriculture in South America
    • -much smaller role compared to plants
    • -domestication of guinea pigs, turkey, dog, muscovy duck
    • -most significant new world domesticates were "camelids" (llamas, alpacas) which are herd animals with dominance hierarchies
    • -llamas came from guanacos 8KYA
    • -alpacas from vicunas 6.5KYA
  7. Agriculture in Eastern North America
    • -domestication of independent plant foods 2KYA before introduction of maize from Mesoamerica
    • -mostly squash and seeds
    • -sunflower independently domesticated 4.2KYA
    • -marsh elder(sumpweed) domesticated 4KYA(seeds tripled in size)
    • -squash independently domesticated 4.5KYA
    • -goosefoot(seeds) domesticated 3.5KYA
    • -maize was used as early as 1.8KYA but major usage began about 1KYA
    • -maize found as far north as Ontario
    • -allowed development of most complex culture north of Mexico
  8. Fried's First Society
    • 1-Egalitarian societies
    • -social status based on age, gender and ability
    • -production at household level
    • -casual and reciprocal exchange system(I killed a moose you can have some if I get some when you kill one)
    • -same number of prestige positions as number of people
    • -not born into a class
  9. Fried's Second Society
    • 2-Ranked society
    • -fewer prestige positions than people, but NOT linked to age, gender or ability
    • -no real political power or exploitation
    • -focused on collection of communal resources and redistribution by "big men" or chiefs
    • -chiefs did not receive more
  10. Fried's Third Society
    • 3-Stratified society
    • -unequal access to resources based on prestige
    • -prestige NOT linked to age, gender or ability
    • -utilized exploitation, from labor demands, to slavery and division of labor among specialist groups
    • -social organizations beyond household
  11. Fried's Fourth Society
    • 4-States
    • -organized on "supra-kin" basis using power to maintain social hierarchy
    • -population control through boundary establishment
    • -development of legal systems 
    • -maintenance of military/police force
    • -taxation 
    • -conscription
  12. Service's Four Societies
    • -focused on legitimate use of force versus Fried's focus on social organization
    • -1)bands-similar to egalitarian society
    • -2)tribes-similar to ranked society
    • -3)chiefdoms-intermediate social complexity with leaders relying on religion for authority
    • -4)state societies-government backed by legitimate force(although not necessarily inherently violent)
  13. Complexity of Defining Social Organization
    • -Fried and service classification provide a tool only, not all societies fit in(ex complex hunter/gatherer society that lived in large villages but had slavery)
    • -some belief that monumental structures were a result of rituals as part of agricultural society, but not always true, evidence of places used purely for feasting and not settled
    • -possibility that cultural complexity led to agriculture instead
  14. Defining State Societies
    • -primary states-form from internal influence 
    • -secondary states-form under the influence of neighbouring states societies
    • -statehood arose independently in different areas
    • -prime mover model-belief in a specific single change to cause a phenomenon(for statehood-large scale irrigation)
    • -other models focus on multiple factors(interaction with landscape, pop growth, violence, control of information)
  15. Childe's Urban Societies
    • -saw urbanization as a "revolution"
    • -he was wrong
    • -ten criteria for defining urban sites archeologically 
    • 1-urban centers
    • 2-surplus production and storage
    • 3-taxes to a deity or ruler
    • 4-monumental architecture
    • 5-ruling class
    • 6-writing systems
    • 7-exact and predictive science(astronomy)
    • 8-sophisticated art 
    • 9-foreign trade
    • 10-specialist craftsmen
    • -problem is that although these features can be found archeologically they are poorly defined (exact sciences?)
    • -also difficult to determine the relevance of one versus another
  16. Northwest Coast Society
    • -hunter gatherer society
    • -broad subsistence base, but focus on salmon and shellfish
    • -large permanent wooden houses
    • -"competitive sharing" at potlatches where people show how rich they are by wasting things, burning oils, giving things away etc(known as fighting with property) was used to achieve and maintain status
    • -social inequality over 2KYA, had nobles, commoners and slaves
    • -nobles-heads of households who controlled resources and directed ceremonial activities
    • -commoners-free people but did not control resources
    • -slaves-considered property; were essential component of workforce to accumulate surpluses for potlatches
  17. Stonehenge
    • -salisbury plains in southern england
    • -date to 5-3.5KYA (late neolithic and early bronze)
    • -oriented towards NE
    • -built in stages
    • 1)earthwork circle-round ditch of about 110M diameter with wooden posts along inside and buried animal bones, ditches had all removed dirt piled alongside to increase appearance from distance (5KYA)
    • 2)burials and timber structure-ditch and post holes filled in, some with burials, new timber structure near center (5-4.5KYA)
    • 3)phase 1-ring of bluestones(2-2.5m high) near center. These stones are from area 200km away, unclear if they were transported there, or deposited there by glacier movement
    • phase 2-sarsen circle and trilithons- sandstone blocks erected around perimeter  and capped with solid lintels. Five of the largest trilithon pairs (up to 7m) erected in the center
    • phase 3-bluestones reorganized, series of holes dug in concentric circles. two more sets of bluestones erected, two concentric pit rings dug around periphery of monument
    • -also had "the avenue" from stonehenge to river Avon (1km away)
  18. Construction of Stonehenge
    • -construction would have required organization of a large number of people with organized bureaucracy 
    • -authority of leaders based on "soft power" inherited or ritual status
    • -evidence of social hierarchy discovered with the amesbury archer (4.5-3.5KYA) had rich grave goods, bows and arrows and large gold either hair clips or earrings found near base of skull
  19. Chaco Canyon
    • -four corners area of american SW
    • -arizona, New mexico, Utah and Colorado 
    • -social complexity around 1.3KYA with urban centers and irrigation projects
    • -by 1.2KYA the Chaco Canyon was settlement network for 400 years
  20. Pueblo Bonito
    • -massive multi storied house called great houses
    • -hundreds of rooms organized in semi circle around central plaza
    • -650 rooms over 2 acres, built over 200 years, population of up to 1200, although evidence does not support that
    • -many berms of broken ceramics covered in dirt found, evidence of potential that area was for celebrations but not always fully populated
    • -scale of construction suggests elite leadership and control of trade networks
    • -likely took 800,000 man hours 
    • -likely abandoned due to drought around 1130AD
  21. Great Zimbabwe
    • -1300-1450AD
    • -modern country of zimbabwe got its name from these
    • -initially thought to be ruins of palace for queen of Sheba
    • -called "great" to distinguish this one from other smaller ones
    • -had several enclosures containing dhaka huts surrounded by un-mortared walls up to 10m high(granite blocks)
    • -covered area of 1800 acres
    • -many dhaka destroyed during first "archeological excavations" which were done sloppily in the search for Sheba
    • -walls were likely not defensive, but for privacy for the elites
    • -authority of the elites is unclear, but obvious region was center of trading
    • -population estimates vary widely
  22. Mesopotamia
    • -"land between the rivers"
    • -between Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern day Iraq, Western Iran, northeastern Syria, and southeastern Turkey
    • -home of earliest known writing and legal systems
    • -earliest state formation (Sumer)
    • -deeply buried paleo and neolithic sites (covered in meters of river silt from changing riverbed over time)
    • -very fertile soils, when irrigated
  23. Early Period of Mesopotamia
    • -earliest farming communities 7.8KYA
    • -developed trade networks 
    • -people forced to live on flood plains due to sedentism and pop growth
    • -water control allowed this to succeed 
    • -7.5KYA water diversion for cultivation began
    • --man made canals up to 5km in length diverted flood water
  24. 'Ubaid Period
    • -7-6KYA
    • -small farming settlements surrounding larger towns of up to 4000 ppl
    • -some towns had substantial buildings, courtyards, alleyways etc
    • -religious/kin leaders became political and social leaders that oversaw village affairs(irrigation projects)
    • -food surplus led to expanding social hierarchy(craftsmen) and larger populations
    • -Temple of Eridu-6.5KYA-elaborate mud brick temple with social and spatial stratification and population of about 5000
  25. Uruk Period
    • -6-5.2KYA
    • -continued growth of 'Ubaid settlements into early urban sites
    • -establishment of earliest known city-Uruk 
    • -growth of Uruk to cover 600+ acres and housing of up to 40,000 people with numerous satellite villages
    • -the densely packed dwellings were built around central Ziggurat(stepped pyramid)
    • -leader were both political and religious, with complex hierarchy of elites, in both life and death (priests, minor officials, wealthy landowners and merchants)
    • -below were commoners(fishermen, farmers, sailors and lastly slaves)
    • -management system developed 5.5KYA(punishment, rewards, policy making etc)
    • -earliest evidence of the wheel 5.5KYA(although simultaneously appeared in Europe and north Caucasus)
  26. Early Dynastic Period
    • -5.2-4.3KYA
    • -development of city states in Sumer(southern mesopotamia)
    • -corresponds with Egypt's old kingdom and Pakistan's Harappan civilization
    • -humans able to effect life hundreds or thousands of km away
    • -economic demand for non local resources fueled extensive trade
    • -by 4.8KYA 3 city-states dominated, Ur, Uruk, and Kish(they basically took turns overtaking one another for dominance)
    • -defence undertaken by kings who were religiously appointed
    • -major innovations were writing and metallurgy
    • -large evidence of social stratification, 16/2000 burials in one cemetery were elite
    • --two burials were perhaps the most extravagant had rich grave goods and sacrifice, 10 females, 5 males and 2 oxen
  27. Development of Writing
    • -five steps
    • 1) 9KYA use of clay tokens that signified specific products (communal granaries, taxes) 16 basic tokens
    • 2) 6KYA more precise use of tokens (raw vs manufactured goods) over 300 tokens
    • 3) 5.5KYA tokens grouped into sealed clay containers(envelopes or bullae) which bore impressions of their contents
    • 4) 5.2KYA impressions themselves became the record, no more tokens issued, only used to form impressions (represent worlds first text)
    • 5) 5.1KYA tokens entirely gone, scribes used a stylus to form symbols directly into soft clay, was earliest form of free hand writing, called cuneiform
  28. Metallurgy
    • -metal imported from iranian highlands to the east from 5.5KYA
    • -first metals (gold, copper) had high prestige
    • -4KYA invention of lead and tin alloying led to widespread use of more durable tools for farming and warfare
    • -alloying of tin and copper led to bronze age
  29. Epic of Gilgamesh
    • -first epic recovered
    • -5th king of Uruk
    • -about 4.5KYA
    • -flood story of Noah
  30. Egypt
    • -upper Egypt is in the SOUTH
    • -lower Egypt is in the NORTH
    • -had geographic barriers surrounding it (deserts  and cataracts(rapids) on the rivers)
  31. Nile River
    • -in Egypt
    • -place of almost all human occupation of valley
    • -fertile floodplain limited need for irrigation
    • -used for transportation
    • -lacking in minerals
  32. Predynastic Egypt
    • -full replacement to cattle and grain farming by 7KYA
    • -series of small kingdoms and villages 6KYA
    • --this led to some kingdoms prospering more than others(monopoly reference)
    • -leadership was linked with symbols and rituals
    • -5.5KYA 3 chiefdoms ruled upper Egypt and one other in lower Egypt
  33. Early Dynastic period of Egypt
    • -constant struggle for power between Upper(south) and Lower(north) parts of Egypt
    • -5-4.6KYA
    • -first unified under Narmer(Menes) who was the king of Hierakonpolis(Upper Egypt)
    • -first ruler of both upper and lower
    • -shown wearing conical crown of UE and red crown of LE
  34. Old Kingdom and First Intermediate of Egypt
    • -old kingdom-LE-4.6-4.1KYA
    • -great pyramids
    • -cult of the pharaoh and sun worship
    • -resources poured into sepulchers(burial vaults)
    • -contemporary(same time as) Indus Valley and Early dynastic Mesopotamia
    • -first intermediate-4.1-4KYA-collapse and conflict of old kingdom
  35. Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate of Egypt
    • -Middle Kingdom-based in Thebes-UE
    • -4-3.6KYA
    • -had gentler pharaohs(shepherds) 
    • -re-establishment and expansion of trade networks (to Nubia and SW Asia)
    • -Second Intermediate
    • -3.6-3.5KYA
    • -collapse and civil war
  36. New Kingdom and Third Intermediate of Egypt
    • -New Kingdom
    • -UE
    • -3.5-3KYA
    • -great imperial period
    • -military states with heroic general Kings
    • -larger influence in SW Asia, colonization of Nubia which led to influx of availability of gold
    • -Third Intermediate
    • -3-2.7KYA
    • -collapse again
  37. Writing in Egypt
    • -hieroglyphics-pictogram system using logograms , phonograms and determinatives (carved in stone)
    • -hieractic-cursive writing used for administration(done on papyrus, therefore little has survived)
    • -earliest evidence of writing found about 5.2KYA in UE tomb of Scorpion 1
  38. Governance of Egypt
    • -pharaohs power came from the gods, they were the living incarnation of the god Horus(falcon) in life and became Osiris in death
    • -Ra was sun god
    • -ma'at-the theory of balance and justice rested solely on the pharaoh 
    • -recorded everything (transfer of grain example to stop stealing)
    • -extended family was important
  39. Cities in Egypt
    • -territorial state, NOT city-state
    • -king wore both the crown of UE and LE
    • -largest urban centers were towns, not cities
    • -possible that early dynastic and old kingdoms had cities, we just cant dig that far to recover them (at memphis)
  40. Akhenaten
    • -18th dynasty
    • -3.3KYA
    • -changed worship from Ra the god of the sun, to Aten, the physical disk of the sun
    • -built a large city, Amarna, but it was destroyed after his death because people came to think he was crazy
    • -Tutankhamen was his son
  41. Pyramids in Egypt
    • -built mostly in old Kingdom (4.7-4.5KYA)
    • -pyramids were expansion of earlier tombs which were earthen mounds linked with Egyptian creation story
    • -pyramids shaped to resemble sun bursting through a cloud and were literal stairways to heaven
    • -explosion of building during 4th dynasty with over 100 built, NONE by slave labor
  42. Stepped Pyramid of Djoser(at Saqqara)
    • -six steps rising to 60m total 
    • -covered area of 3.25 acres
    • -4.6KYA
    • -built by 1st pharaoh of 3rd dynasty
    • -part of extensive burial complex, open vestibule, large courtyard and South tomb(which contained Pharaohs internal organs) all enclosed by mile long wall
  43. Three Pyramids of Sneferu
    • 1-collapsed pyramid-abandoned during construction after cracks found in foundation(too steep of angle), partly disassembled 
    • 2-Bent pyramid-angle changed partway through because was again too steep for foundation, each side is a pentagon rather than triangle
    • 3-red pyramid-built on same angle as top half of bent pyramid(43 degrees)
    • -Sneferu's son Khufu, built the largest of the triad of pyramids at Giza, his grandson and great-grandson built the other two
    • -Khufu's used 2.5million stone blocks and stood 146m high, highest in the world until eiffel tower in 1899
  44. Valley of the Kings
    • -18th-20th dynasties (new kingdom)
    • -20/63 known Kings opted to hide their tombs in limestone walls of two valleys from Nile to Thebes
    • -similar inside to pyramids, three corridors, antechamber and sunken sarcophagus chamber
    • -hidden in effort to stop looting
  45. The Aegean
    • -farming by 9KYA 
    • -greater usage of olives, grapes and cereals by 8KYA
    • -systematic sea trade by 6KYA
    • -crete developed by 4.5 KYA
    • -increase in craft production for trade purposes, pottery, marble, stone, copper, bronze, gold and silver
  46. Minoan Crete
    • -first inhabited 8.1KYA, contemporaneous with Catalhoyuk in Turkey
    • -extensive long distance trading after 5.7 kya
    • Palace at Knossus
    • -where minotaur legend originated
    • -constructed 3.9KYA
    • -over 1000 separate rooms covering 5 acres
    • -brilliant frescoes of dolphins and bulls, many of athletic feats (jumping a charging bull)
    • -palace destroyed 3.65KYA by earthquake, largely rebuilt though
  47. Minoans
    • -religious focus on goddesses and priestesses without large temples
    • -social stratification without typical personal consumption or elaborate burials of elites
    • -writing by 3.8 KYA, Cretan hieroglyphics and Linear A (both undeciphered) 
    • -culture peaked 3.7-3.4KYA, with Knossos having as many as 100,000 residents
    • -volcanic eruption on nearby island of Thera 3.4KYA ended them
  48. Mycenaeans
    • -located on fertile plains of Argos, Peloponnesus 
    • -small kingdoms flourished 3.6 KYA thanks to long distance trade with rest of Europe
    • -had Linear B, which was derived from Linear A
    • -48 characters continue from linear A to B
    • -warfare seemed to be test of skill with small chance of death (the weapons were too shitty)
    • -decline after 3.2KYA
    • Palaces
    • -central megaron(large room with hearth surrounded by 4 pillars)
    • -elaborate paint jobs
  49. Mycenae
    • -fortified palace with massive defensive walls and a lions gate
    • -elaborate burials, chieftains buried in large tholos tombs with copper and gold weaponry and gold death masks
  50. Greece
    • -after fall of Mycenaeans(3.2KYA) trade was not recovered until 2.7KYA
    • -fortified cities with surrounding agricultural land and farms were the norm
    • -they traded many things, honey, ginger, walnut, fish, juniper, legumes, mint, oregano, thyme
    • -Greece fought amongst itself until Persians threatened all of Greece, they then unified and defeated the Persians 2.5KYA, this lead to 50 years of peace
  51. Athens vs Sparta
    • -Athens was a democracy with more mobility throughout social structure(you could change what you were born into)
    • -Sparta full military discipline with rigid social structure
    • -Peloponnesian war 2.45-2.4KYA led to the fall of Athens
    • -Spartan dominance led to chaos and fall of Greece, was first conquered by Philip of Macadon and then his son, Alexander the Great, led to creation of Imperial Rome
  52. Indus (Harappan) Civilization
    • -contemporaneous with Egypt's old kingdom
    • -controlled area twice as large as Egypt or Mesopotamia 
    • -extensive trade with mesopotamia
  53. Indus Valley
    • -Indus river flows 3000km from the Himalayans to the Arabian Sea
    • -Hgaggar-Hakra river flowed east of the Indus, but is now dried up
    • -is much of modern day Pakistan and NW India and SE Afghanistan
    • -bordered mostly by highlands and desert
  54. Indus Valley in Neolithic
    • -Mehrgarh-located on Bolan river-evidence of domestication with hunting by 8.5KYA
    • --7.5 KYA Mehrgarh included granaries and mudbrick residences with 6-9 rooms
    • --increase in grave goods
    • --decreased reliance on hunting, increase in goats and cattle
  55. Pre-Harappan Period
    • -5.3-4.6KYA
    • -required flood control technology
    • -artificial mounds and monumental walls
    • -mother goddess statues and horned water buffalo images
    • -4.8KYA five true cities, each would have controlled numerous smaller villages and vast lands around 100,000-170,000 square km
  56. Harappan (mature) Period
    • -4.6-3.9KYA
    • -complex urban centers 40-80K people
    • -supported by 1500 smaller settlements across the valley
    • -planned grid building(most complex in ancient world) with drainage systems, communal granaries, baths and citadels
    • -strict mudbrick ratios of 1:2:4
    • -extensive trade 
    • -writing from 5.2KYA, but not everywhere until 4.4KYA
    • -over 400 symbols and pictograms (almost all messages are short so we cant decipher them)
    • -standard weights and measures
    • -no evidence of defensive works or weaponry(although skeletal traumas have been found)
  57. Early Chinese Civilizations
    • -7-5KYA Yang-Shao culture along yellow river
    • -small terraced farming communities 
    • -although Hsia(Xia) and early Shang dynasties are thought to exist, they are difficult to prove archeologically
  58. Longshan
    • -5-4KYA in China
    • -several changes from Yang-Shao
    • -rice becomes dominant
    • -larger more permanent settlements
    • -communal construction of stamped earth walls(very cheap to make, but lots of man power needed)
    • -evidence of social stratification
    • -jade cong tubes and scapulimancy(divination)
    • -copper metallurgy
    • -elite ritual vessels
    • -warfare and violence
  59. Liangzhu
    • -5.3-4.2KYA China
    • -Shanghai Delta on Yangtze river
    • -fine black pottery and elite burials
    • -highly stratified society
  60. Erlitou
    • -3.9-3.5KYA China
    • -based on type site of Erlitou which was over 700 acres and reached 200km in influence
    • -largest settlement in China at the time, 8 palaces etc
    • -planned grid of roads, some were paved and showing earliest signs of wagon use in China
    • -cast bronze vessels for ritual purposes
  61. Shang(Yin)
    • -3.5-3KYA China
    • -first true urban civilization
    • -rulers lived in at least 7 different capital cities before settling in Yin 3.3KYA
    • -power was based on rules skills in divination using finely casted bronze tripod vessels
    • -at its height controlled over 200,000 square km
    • --Yin- oldest known Chinese city, and last capital of Shang dynasty
    • --30km^2 city with simply built buildings(stamped walls) central palace was raised while common buildings were partially dug into ground
    • -Yin burial ground contained 1000+ but only 11 elite
    • -elite burials contained elaborate coffins and rich grave goods, with decapitated sacrificial victims(30, 000) in that one guys tomb. Rulers spent their lives raiding to capture victims for their tombs
    • -bronze was prestige metal
  62. After the Shang Dynasty
    • -Zhou dynasty 3-2.25KYA
    • -Qin dynasty 2.25-2KYA (had terracotta army)
  63. Mesoamerica
    • -sedentary farming villages 4KYA
    • -mexico, guatemala, belize, el salvador, western honduras and western nicaragua
  64. Olmecs
    • -mesoamerica
    • -3.2-2.3KYA
    • -raised platforms for living and ceremonial centers
    • -monumental art of "were-jaguars" part human part jaguar people
    • -colossal heads with headgear possibly for ball game
  65. Zapotecs
    • -2.5-1.3KYA
    • -Monte Alban-first true city in mexican highlands (Oaxaca Valley) pop of up to 17,000
    • -over 2000 terraced neighbourhoods and fields around a central plaza
    • -hereditary elite rule with worship of 39 gods
    • -decline after 1.3KYA
  66. Maya
    • -occupied 324,000KM^2 at peak
    • -stepped platforms communally built 2.7KYA 
    • -2.4KYA temples were built on top of many platforms
    • --complex agriculture to feed large population on shitty land
    • --slash and burn (cutting down forests for farming then replanting when the ground was used up)
    • --ridged fields for flooding
    • --terracing
    • --kitchen gardens in each house
    • --tree cropping (harvesting and tending wild trees)
    • --swamp reclamation
  67. Mayan Cities
    • -dense three tiered cities
    • -pop up to 30,000 (90% focused on food gathering, much higher than other cultures)
    • -pyramids built over top of each other with temples at the top and elite tombs inside
  68. Mayan Governance
    • -cities ruled by powerful dynasties in 4th and 5th century AD
    • -not living deities (egypt) but revered as sacred
    • -evidence of inequality in grave goods (not crazy like china)
  69. Mayan Writing
    • -earliest use dates to 2.9kya
    • -translation is slow thanks to destruction by Spaniards 
    • -sophisticated calendar construction, one with 365 days and one with 260 days
  70. Peak and Collapse of Maya
    • -peaked by 1.9KYA
    • -stratified society
    • -monumental architecture
    • -hieroglyphic language and bark books
    • -base 20 number system
    • -dual calendar
    • -ritual ball game
    • -chocolate in elite beverages
    • --collapse around 800AD
    • --did not disappear, but focus shifted north (Chicen Itza)