rtvf lecture 5

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  1. liquid crystal displays
    R/G/B backlit displays of pixels with doors in front of each, originally aimed at computer users and thus tend to be smaller, better at displaying multimedia text and graphics, trouble  clearly displaying fast moving objects, lasts longer than plasma, weigh less than plasma
  2. plasma display panels (PDPs or just plasmas)
    little CRT picture tubes all pressed together, aimed at video users larger than LCDs, better displaying HDTV, consume more power than LCDs and hotter, problems with glare
  3. Light emitting diode (LED) LCDs
    regular LCDs with with several advantages and one disadvantage. provide increased contrast and better color reproduction, allow slimmer designs, more environmentally friendly, more expensive
  4. ultra HD
    4K,  2014
  5. if scanning system utilizes
    interlace scanning total lines= 1 frame of video that is broken down into 2 fields. one of these fields cans the odd numbered lines other scans even. progressive=each frame has all 480/720/1080 lines and takes 1/60th or 1/30th of second before scanning refreshes frame. newer.
  6. pixel
    smallest unit of picture information. digital TV pictures are made of arrays of pixels. up to 3.6 billion pixels so digital compression is needed
  7. analog v digital: number of values
    analog: infinite. digital: 2 (0 & 1, 1 on/off is bit)
  8. analog v digital: waveform
    analog: sin. digital: square
  9. analog v digital: found in
    analog: nature. digital: electronic equipment
  10. analog v digital: devices
    analog: ears/eye. digital: modern electronic devices
  11. analog v digital: a/v devices
    analog: mics, speakers, CCDs, CRTs. digital: iPods, CDs, DV, DVDs, etc
  12. analog v digital: authenticity
    analog: like original. digital: representation of original
  13. analog v digital: involves/requires
    analog: constant voltage fluctuations. digital: sampling/quantizing
  14. digital processing benefits
    higher first generation resolution, multi-generation recordings without loss of quality, compression techniques that reduce the digital bitstream allowing for greater recording volumes or availability of content, correct processing problems
  15. CD quality digital audio is sampled
    at either 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz (CD quality) or 48 kHz for most video applications, HD audio is 192 kHz
  16. digital compression
    bit-rate reduction, reduce file sizes by removing redundant data from video and/or audio signals. allows for hard drive & broadcast efficiencies for applications like digital nonlinear editing (dnle), internet hosting sites (cloud), multichannel cable distribution
  17. interlace scanning is compression
    2:1 compression because progressive scanning requires 2x the bandwidth
  18. compression is done with complex
    mathematical schemes, algorithms, little computer programs to figure out how best to remove the info with the least negative impact. remove info that can easily be reconstructed, considered nonessential, or is unnoticeable by eyes or ears.
  19. most common form of compression
    temporal. removes redundant information from each frame, utilizes the remaining information in previous frame to fill-in any missing information. first frame=key frame (uncompressed)
  20. two types of web compression services
    1. streaming-live. served from a host hard drive server to a user thru a live "push system" similar to cable television 2. progressive download-YouTube, served from a host server to user thru a pull system. user must click to watch video/audio. downloads so you can move around.
  21. lossless compression
    rejected redundant information is fully recoverable at the moment of decompression (cable TV)
  22. lossy compression
    a definite loss of information, the further apart the keyframes, the more lossy
  23. amount of loss depends on compression CODEC
    Motion Picture Experts Group forms of compression are standard codecs used in tv and internet video. MPEG 2- used for TV for broadcast, production equipment. MPEG 4- internet video. MP3-audio
  24. major advancement in MPEG coding
    H.264. most advanced video codec, algorithm based on random sampling of 4,8, or 16 pixels in frame. creates a predictive pattern that works forward & backward at the same time saving original quality especially during shot transitions, made by Apple
  25. H._____ is to be replaced by H.____
    H.264 is being replaced by H.265 in 2016. Ultra-HD/4kTV's codec
  26. most common codec used in websites
    animation-based codec Flash owned by Adobe, smallest file size which yields quickest downloads
  27. "all-digital" facilities utilize
    uncompressed digital signal, "serial digital interface", carries video as well as embedded audio (up to 16 channels), both SD and HD flavors
  28. having all digital ___ in an analog based facility
    islands. requires a lot of A/D to D/A converters. sometimes 2 per device when both input and output. dempster converters utilize an A/D standard-International Telecommunicaions Union Recommendation (ITU Rec) 601, conversions lower picture quality
  29. modern production facilities want to be digital and
    tapeless. store video signals on magnetic or optical discs or solid state memory cards. nonlinear playback. our Chyron and XClyps and GVG provide tapeless clip playback
  30. our JVC and Panasonic cam discs provide
    tapeless acquisition. utilize cheap secure digital high capacity (SDHC).
  31. biggest problems with JVC and Panasonic camcorders
    not all of them create file types that are compatible with DNLE system. Panasonic lower level user AVC HC (long-GOP) compression processing-form of temporal compression hard to edit. not recognized natively by Avid and needs transcoding to one recognized by MXF file
  32. older examples of automation
    robotic camera controllers and video servers (XClyps) that are delivered to switcher without an operator
  33. newer examples of automation
    integrated control room devices. 'master' control devices that command peripheral devices like audio boards and servers without an operator. all-in-one Broadcast Pix switchers also integrate internal clip players, monitoring, robotic camera and audio board control
  34. microwave feeds
    used for ENG and local transmission of signals. require a clear line of sight between transmitter and receiver
  35. satellite feeds
    used for SNG and non local transmission of signals
  36. fiber optic feeds
    used in a similar fashion to satellites but are cheaper since they use existing, and emerging global cabling
  37. frame store synchronizers
    allow external feeds to be synchronized with the rest of a production facility's "in house" equipment. accepts any video source.
  38. File Transfer Protocol
    exchanges between computers, using the internet, will likely replace signal feeds but not until internet bandwidth is big enough to allow for HD signals to be transferred in real time. internet protocol television uses this form of file transfer
  39. wireless broadband: WiBB
    high-speed wireless internet and data network access over large areas. allow multiple cell phone channels to get video back to their facilities.
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rtvf lecture 5
2013-03-16 02:26:19

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