S&H Science Test 2 - Ch. 8 Part 1

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rchambers7
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S&H Science Test 2 - Ch. 8 Part 1
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2013-03-11 14:45:04
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articulatory system speech hearing science
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S&H Science Test 2 - Ch. 8 Part 1
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  1. The average length of the vocal tract in men is___?
    17 cm long
  2. The vocal tract consists of what structures above the larynx?
    The pharynx, the oral cavity, and the nasal cavities
  3. True or false: the vocal tract is variable in shape, and each time you move your tongue, lips, or mandible, you are changing the shape of the vocal tract.
    True
  4. True or false: the vocal tract is a series of valves which channel or constrict airflow in certain ways to create different types of sounds.
    True
  5. The inner surface of the upper lip connects to the midline of the alveolar region by a small flap of tissue called _____.
    Superior labial frenulum
  6. The lower lip is connected to the midline of the mandible by the ______.
    inferior labial frenulum
  7. The primary muscle making up the lips is the ____.
    orbicularis oris
  8. Elevating muscles of the face that insert above the lip and raise include_____
    levator labii superioris, levator anguli oris, zygomaticus major and minor, and the risorius.
  9. Depressor muscles of the face that insert around the lower lip and lower it include____.
    depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and the mentalis.
  10. _____ serve as an immovable articulator against which the tongue can form connections.
    The teeth
  11. The relationship between the upper and lower dental arches and the positioning of individual teeth refers to the term ____.
    Occlusion
  12. This occlusion type is considered normal.
    Class I Occlusion/Neutrocclusion
  13. This occlusion type refers to the first molar of the jaw appearing posterior to the normal position, resulting in the mandible being retracted (a condition called overjet)
    Class II Malocclusion/Distocclusion
  14. This type of malocclusion has the first molar of the jaw at an anterior position, with the mandible protruding too far forward (a condition called prognathic jaw)
    Class III Malocclusion/ Mesiocclusion
  15. The anterior three quarters of the hard palate are formed by what?
    The palatine processes of the maxilla
  16. The palatine processes of the hard palate join at the midline via the ______
    Intermaxillary suture
  17. The posterior 1/3 of the hard palate is made up of _____
    The palatine bones of the skull
  18. The meeting of the palatine bones and palatine processes forms a suture called the _____
    transverse palatine suturue
  19. Another word for soft palate is _____
    velum
  20. This large, flat tendon attaches the velum to the posterior portion of the hard palate.
    the aponeurosis
  21. The passageway between the velum and the posterior pharyngeal wall is called the _____
    Velopharyngeal passaage
  22. All English sounds are oral, except for three: what are they and where are they produced from?
    /m, n, ng/, airflow exits through the nasal cavities
  23. Air escaping through the nasal cavity resulting in excessive nasal resonance is called ______
    Hypernasality
  24. Air that is prevented from entering the nasal cavity for production of nasal sounds, resulting in insufficient nasal resonance, is called ______
    Hyponasality
  25. The velum forms a point of contact for the tongue in the production of what sounds?
    /g, k, ng/
  26. Which muscle of the velum makes up the bulk of the velum and is instrumental in elevating the velum to close the velopharyngeal port?
    Levator Veli Palatini
  27. Which muscle of the velum "bunches up" the velum and also raises it>
    Musculus uvuli
  28. Which muscle of the velum tenses the velum and may be involved in the function of the auditory tube?
    Tensor Veli Palatini
  29. Which muscle depresses the velum?
    Palatoglossus
  30. The palatoglossus forms one of the arched pillars at the back of your throat; the others are formed by _____, which mark the posterior boundary of the oral cavity.
    The anterior and posterior faucial pillars
  31. This is a muscle of both the velum and the pharynx and forms the posterior faucial pillars
    palatopharyngeus
  32. Velopharyngeal closure involves what movements?
    Elevation of the velum to contact the posterior pharyngeal wall, as well as inward movement of the lateral pharyngeal walls
  33. Muscular organs that do not have a skeleton or cartilage or bone, but provide their own support through muscular contraction (like the tongue) are examples of ______
    muscular hydrostat
  34. The anterior-most portion of the tongue is called the _____
    Apex
  35. The root of the tongue attached to what bone?
    The hyoid
  36. The portion just posterior to the apex of the tongue is____
    the blade
  37. The part of the tongue lying just below the hard palate is called the ____, the part situated beneath the soft palate is called the _____.
    Front; back
  38. The tongue is divided into right and left sides by the ____
    median fibrous septum
  39. The band of connective tissue joining the inferior tongue and the mandible is called the____
    lingual frenum
  40. _____muscles of the tongue adjust fine movements of shape and position; ______muscles of the tongue move the tongue to different positions in the oral cavity
    Intrinsic; extrinsic
  41. _______ is the most important organ of articulation.
    The tongue
  42. This class of sounds are motorically the least complex, using primarily horizontal and vertical movements of the tongue body.
    Vowels
  43. This organ plays a pivotal role in swallowing, respiration, and speech.
    The pharynx
  44. This organ is a long, hollow tube made of muscle, connective tissue, and mucous lining, running behind the nasal cavities, oral cavities, and larynx
    The pharynx
  45. This portion of the pharynx running behind the nasal cavities is called the ______
    nasopharynx
  46. The portion of the pharynx behind the oral cavity is called the ______
    oropharynx
  47. The portion of the pharynx behind the larynx is called the _______
    laryngopharynx
  48. The major muscles of the pharynx are the ____, which are fan-shaped muscles that overlap one another like shingles
    pharyngeal constrictors
  49. Which muscles is the largest and strongest of the pharyngeal constrictors?
    The inferior constrictor
  50. At the lower margin of the inferior constrictor of the pharynx lies the _____muscle; which vibrates during esophogeal speech and emits a low-pitched sounding esophageal voice
    Cricopharyngeus
  51. Above the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle lies the ____ that extends from the hyoid bone
    Middle pharyngeal constrictor
  52. Above the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscles lies the _____ muscle
    superior pharyngeal constrictor
  53. These two muscles of the pharynx help to elevate and open it
    stylopharyngeus and salpingopharyngeus
  54. the nose is divided into two cavities by the _____
    nasal septum
  55. This valve of the vocal tract is formed by the lips; they can contact eachother, come close to eachother but not touch, or contact the teeth
    Labial valve
  56. This valve of the vocal tract consists of the tongue; an extremely agile and versatile organ that can contact or approximate many different structures
    Lingual valve
  57. This valve of the vocal tract is made up of the velum and the posterior and lateral pharyngeal walls; it is important in directing the flow of air through the appropriate cavity for speech production
    Velopharyngeal valve
  58. This valve of the vocal tract is formed by the vocal folds; plays a crucial role in voicing of the sounds
    Laryngeal valve
  59. This manner of articulation results when two articulators contact each other and momentarily block the air through the oral cavity.
    • Stops;
    • Bilabial: /p,b/
    • Alveolar: /t,d/
    • Velar: /k,g/
  60. This manner of articulation results when air is forced through a narrow channel somewhere within the oral cavity under high pressures
    • Fricatives;
    • Interdental: /voiced and voiceless th/
    • labiodental: /f,v/
    • Alveolar: /s, z/
    • Palatal: /∫,  /
    • Glottal: /h/
  61. This manner of articulation results when features of stops and fricatives are combined
    • Affricates;
    • /t∫, dz/
  62. This manner of articulation results when air resonates in the nasal cavities
    • Nasals;
    • Bilabial: /m/
    • Alveolar: /n/
    • Velar: /ng/
  63. This manner of articulation results when a smooth flowing movement of the tongue shifts rapidly from its position for one vowel to a position for another vowel
    • Glides;
    • /j, w/
  64. This manner of articulation is described as being flowing, with the tongue forming a loose blockage within the oral cavity allowing air to flow around it.
    • Liquids;
    • /r, l/
  65. Pairs of sound that differ only in voicing are know as ______
    • cognates
    • Ex: /t,d/ /s,z/ /f,v/
  66. vowels are traditionally classified in what way?
    location of the tongue body within the oral cavity (tongue height and tongue advancement)
  67. The highest front vowel is __ and the lowest front vowel is____
    /i/ and /æ/
  68. The highest back vowel is __ and the lowest back vowel is____
    /u/ and /a/
  69. These vowels are made with the tongue in a neutral position within the vocal tract
    Central vowels
  70. The vocal tract is a _______ that responds at multiple resonant frequencies known as formants.
    Quarter-wave resonator (a quarter wave resonator, like the vocal tract, is a tube that is closed at one end (the glottis) and open at the other end (the lips))
  71. True or false: Because the vocal tract is a quarter wave resonator, the other frequencies that it responds to are odd-number multiples of the lowest resonant frequency
    True. The male voice resonates schwa at 500 hz, and the next resonance is 1500hz, then 2500, then 3500, then 4500...
  72. The speed of sound is ___
    34,000 cm/s
  73. The vocal tract is a _____ whose frequency response changes depending on its shape
    variable resonator
  74. What are the three elements of the source-filter theory?
    Source function (glottal spectrum or laryngeal tone), the transfer function (vocal tract resonant response), and the output function (sound exiting the oral cavity)
  75. Part of the source-filter theory also takes into account the effect that occurs when the sound traveling through the vocal tract is radiated beyond the mouth into the atmosphere. This is called _____
    Radiation characteristic

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