Respiratory System

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servinggod247
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206457
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Respiratory System
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2013-03-11 17:02:42
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Anatomy
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Anatomy 2
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  1. The nose provides
    • an airway for respiration
    • moistens, warms, filters, and cleans incoming air
    • provides a resonance chamber for speech
    • and houses olfactory receptors.
    •  
  2. The nose is divided into the ________ and the __________
    • external nose
    • nasal cavity
  3. The external nose is formed by 
    hyaline cartilage and bones of the skull
  4. The nasal cavity consists of two types of epithelium
    • olfactory mucosa
    • respiratory mucosa.
    •  
  5. The nasal cavity is surrounded by 
    • Paranasal sinuses within the frontal, maxillary, sphenoid
    • Ethmoid bones that serve to lighten the skull, warm and moisten air, and produce mucus.
    •  
  6. The pharynx connects the nasal cavity and mouth _________  to the larynx and esophagus ________.
     
    • superiorly 
    • inferiorly
  7. The nasopharynx serves as only an _________, and contains the ___________, which traps and destroys airborne pathogens.
     
    air passageway

    pharyngeal tonsil
  8. The oropharynx is an ____ and _____  passageway that extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis.
    air and food
  9. The laryngopharynx is an ____ and _____ passageway that lies directly posterior to the _______, extends to the ______, and is continuous inferiorly with the ________
    • air and food
    • epiglosttis
    • larynix
    • esophagus
  10. The larynx attaches superiorly to the ________, opening into the______________, and attaches inferiorly to the ________
    • hyoid bone
    • laryngopharnx
    • trachea
  11. The larynx provides 
    • an open airway, routes food and air into the proper passageways, and produces sound through the vocal cords.
    •  
  12. The larynx consists of hyaline cartilages and the _________
    • thyroid, cricoid, paired arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform
    • epiglottis
  13. Vocal ligaments form the core of _____________, the true vocal cords, which vibrate as air passes over them to produce sound.
     
    mucosal folds
  14. The vocal folds and the medial space between them are called the
    glottis
  15. ____________involves the intermittent release of expired air and the opening and closing of the glottis.
     
    voice production 
  16.  a behavior in which the glottis closes to prevent exhalation and the abdominal muscles contract, causing intra-abdominal pressure to rise.
     
    Valsalva's maneuver
  17. _____________, or windpipe, descends from the larynx through the neck into
    the mediastinum, where it terminates at the primary bronchi 
    trachea
  18. the ____________ consists of right and left primary bronchi that enter each lung and diverge into secondary bronchi that serve each lobe of the lungs.
     
    conducting zone
  19. Secondary bronchi branch into several orders of ____________, which ultimately branch into ____________
    • tertiary bronchi
    • bronchioles
  20. As the conducting airways become smaller, the _____________ changes in character until it is no longer present in the bronchioles.
     
    supportive cartilage
  21. the _____________begins as the terminal bronchioles feed into respiratory bronchioles that terminate in alveolar ducts within clusters of alveolar sacs, which consist of alveoli.
    respiratory zone
  22. The _____________ consists of a single layer of squamous epithelium surrounded by a basal lamina.
    respiratory membrane
  23. Interspersed among the type-I cells are septal cells that secrete
     
    surfactant
  24. Alveoli are surrounded by __________, contain open ___________, and have 
    • elastic fibers
    • alveolar pores
    • alveolar macrophages
  25. The lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity except for the ___________; each lung is suspended within its own pleural cavity and connected to the mediastinum by vascular and bronchial attachments called the _________.
    • mediastinum
    • lung root
  26. Each lobe of the lung contains a number of ___________________, each served by its own artery, vein, and tertiary bronchus.
    bronchopulmonary segments
  27. Lung tissue consists largely of 
    air spaces and its stroma
  28. The stroma of the lung is comprised mostly of 
    elastic connective tissue
  29. There are two circulations that serve the lungs: the _________________ carries systemic blood to the lungs for oxygenation, and the________________ provide systemic blood to the lung tissue.
     
    • pulmonary network
    •  bronchial arteries
  30. The lungs are innervated by _________________________________ that constrict or dilate the airways, as well as _____________.
    • parasympathetic and sympathetic motor fibers
    • visceral sensory fibers
  31. The pleurae form a 
    thin, double-layered serosa

  32. The ______________ covers the thoracic wall, superior face of the diaphragm, and continues around the heart between the lungs.

     
    parietal pleura
  33. The ____________ covers the external lung surface, following its contours and fissures.
    visceral pleura 
  34. _________________________ is the pressure in the alveoli, which rises and falls during respiration, but always eventually equalizes with atmospheric pressure.
     
    Intrapulmonary pressure
  35. _________________ is the pressure in the pleural cavity. It also rises and falls during respiration, but is always about 4 mm Hg less than intrapulmonary pressure.
     
    Intrapleural pressure
  36. ____________________ is a mechanical process causing gas flow into and out of the lungs according to volume changes in the thoracic cavity.
    Pulmonary ventilation
  37. Boyle’s law states that 
    at a constant temperature, the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume.
  38. During _______________, the diaphragm and intercostals contract, resulting in an increase in thoracic volume, which causes intrapulmonary pressure to drop below atmospheric pressure, and air flows into the lungs. 
    quiet inspiration
  39. During _____________ accessory muscles of the neck and thorax contract, increasing thoracic volume beyond the increase in volume during quiet inspiration.
     
    forced inspiration,
  40. _____________ is a passive process that relies mostly on elastic recoil of the lungs as the thoracic muscles relax.
    Quiet expiration
  41. ________________  is an active process relying on contraction of abdominal muscles to increase intra-abdominal pressure and depress the ribcage.
     
    Forced expiration
  42. ______________ is the friction encountered by air in the airways; gas flow is reduced as airway resistance increases.
    Airway resistance 
  43. Alveolar surface tension due to water in the alveoli acts to 
    draw the walls of the alveoli together, presenting a force that must be overcome in order to expand the lungs.
  44. Lung compliance is determined by distensibility of lung tissue and the surrounding thoracic cage, and alveolar surface tension.
     
    • distensibility of lung tissue and the surrounding thoracic cage, and alveolar surface tension.
    •  
  45. Respiratory volumes and specific combinations of volumes, called respiratory capacities, are used to
    gain information about a person’s respiratory status
  46. ___________is the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each breath during quiet breathing.
    Tidal volume 
  47. The____________  is the amount of air that can be forcibly inspired beyond the tidal volume.
     inspiratory reserve volume
  48. The ________________ is the amount of air that can be evacuated from the lungs after tidal expiration.
     
    expiratory reserve volume
  49. ____________ is the amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal forced expiration.
    Residual volume
  50. _____________ is the sum of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume, and represents the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration.
    Inspiratory capacity
  51. _________________  is the combined residual volume and expiratory reserve volume, and represents the amount of air that remains in the lungs after a tidal expiration.
    Functional residual capacity
  52. _____________ is the sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve and expiratory reserve volumes, and is the total amount of exchangeable air.
     
    Vital capacity
  53. The________________  is the volume of the conducting zone conduits, which is a volume that never contributes to gas exchange in the lungs.
     anatomical dead space
  54. ___________ tests evaluate losses in respiratory function using a spirometer to distinguish between obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorders.
    Pulmonary function 
  55. Nonrespiratory air movements cause
    •  movement of air into or out of the lungs, but are not related to breathing (coughing, sneezing, crying, laughing, hiccups, and yawning).
    •  
  56. Dalton’s law of partial pressure states that
    the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture 
  57. Henry’s law states t
    •  when a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure .
    •  
  58. The relative proportions of gases in the alveoli reflect 
    • gas exchange occurring in the lungs,
    • humidification of air by conducting passages,
    • and mixing of alveolar gas that occurs with each breath. 
  59. External respiration involves
    • O2 uptake and CO2 unloading from hemoglobin in red blood cells.
    •  
  60. carbon dioxide is much more ______ than oxygen in the blood.
     
    soluble
  61. ________________ ensures a close match between the amount of gas reaching the alveoli and the blood flow in the pulmonary capillaries.
     
    Ventilation-perfusion coupling
  62. The ____________ is normally very thin, and presents a huge surface area for efficient gas exchange.
     
    respiratory membrane 
  63. Since molecular oxygen is poorly soluble in the blood, only _____is dissolved in plasma, while the remaining _____must be carried on
    hemoglobin. 
    1.5% 

    98.5% 
  64. Up to ___ oxygen molecules can be reversibly bound to a molecule of hemoglobin—one oxygen on each iron.
    4
  65. The affinity of _________ for oxygen changes with each successive oxygen that is bound or released, making oxygen loading and unloading very efficient.
    hemoglobin
  66. At higher plasma partial pressures of oxygen, hemoglobin unloads little oxygen, but if plasma partial pressure falls dramatically, such as during _________, much more oxygen can be unloaded to the tissues. 
    vigorous exercise 
  67. What influences hemoglobin saturation at a given partial pressure
    • temp
    • blood pH
    • Pressure of CO2
    • the amount of BPG in the blood
  68. ___________, secreted by lung and vascular endothelial cells, is carried on hemoglobin to the tissues where it causes vasodilation and enhances oxygen transfer to the tissues.
     
    Nitric oxide (NO)
  69. Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in three ways:
    • 7–10% is dissolved in plasma
    • 20% is carried on hemoglobin bound to globins
    •  70% exists as bicarbonate, an important buffer of blood pH.
  70. The _________ encourages CO2 exchange in the lungs and tissues: when plasma partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin decrease, more CO2 can be carried in the blood.
    Haldane effect
  71. The _________________________ of the blood is formed when CO2 combines with water and dissociates, producing carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions that can release or absorb hydrogen ions.
    carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system 
  72. The ________________ contains the dorsal respiratory group, or inspiratory center, with neurons that act as the pacesetting respiratory group, and the ventral respiratory group, which functions mostly during forced breathing.  
    medulla oblongata
  73. The _________________ within the pons modifies the breathing rhythm and prevents overinflation of the lungs through an inhibitory action on the medullary respiration centers.  
     
    pontine respiratory group
  74. ________________ on the part of the different respiratory centers is responsible for the rhythm of breathing. 
    reciprocal inhibition
  75. ___________________ respond to inhaled irritants by causing reflex constriction of the irritated passageways if the trachea or nasal cavity is irritated.
     
    Pulmonary irritant reflexes
  76. The inflation, or __________, reflex is activated by stretch receptors in the visceral pleurae and conducting airways, resulting in inhibition of inspiration.
    Hering-Breuer
  77. The limbic system, strong emotions, and pain activate the 
    • hypothalamus, which modifies respiratory rate and depth.  
    •  
  78. The ___________ can exert voluntary control over respiration by bypassing the medullary centers and directly stimulating the respiratory muscles.
     
    cerebral cortex 
  79. __________________________ levels of PCO2 are the strongest stimuli influencing respiration; elevated PCO2, or ____________, causes an increase in rate and depth of breathing.  
    • Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid
    • hypercapnia
  80. Blood PO2 affects breathing indirectly by
    •  influencing chemoreceptor sensitivity to changes in PCO2
    •  
  81. ___________________ monitor plasma PO2 and stimulate an increase in ventilation when PO2 drops below 60 mm Hg. 
    Peripheral chemoreceptors
  82. As ___________ declines, the respiratory system attempts to compensate by causing an increase in rate and depth of breathing.
     
    arterial pH
  83. During vigorous exercise, deeper and more vigorous respirations, called_____________, ensure that tissue demands for oxygen are met.  
     hyperpnea
  84. Three neural factors contribute to the change in respiration: 
    • psychic stimuli, cortical stimulation of skeletal muscles and respiratory centers, and excitatory impulses to the respiratory areas from active muscles, tendons, and joints.  
    •  
  85. ______________________ may result from a rapid transition from sea level to altitudes above 8000 feet.
     
    Acute mountain sickness (AMS)
  86. A long-term change from sea level to high altitudes results in ____________ of the body, including an increase in ventilation rate, lower than normal hemoglobin saturation, and increased production of erythropoietin.
    acclimatization 
  87. _________________ are seen in patients that have a history of smoking, and result in progressive dyspnea, coughing and frequent pulmonary infections, and respiratory failure.
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)
  88. ___________________ is characterized by permanently enlarged alveoli and deterioration of alveolar walls.
     
    Obstructive emphysema 
  89. ____________ results in excessive mucus production, as well as inflammation and fibrosis of the lower respiratory mucosa.
     
    Chronic bronchitis
  90. ____________ is characterized by coughing, dyspnea, wheezing, and chest tightness, brought on by active inflammation of the airways 
    Asthma
  91. ________________ is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and spread by coughing and inhalation 
    Tuberculosis (TB)
  92. Most common type of cancer
    lung cancer
  93. . ________________ arises in the epithelium of the bronchi, and tends to form masses that hollow out and bleed.  
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  94. _______________ originates in peripheral lung areas as nodules that develop from bronchial glands and alveolar cells.  
     
    Adenocarcinoma
  95. _______________ contains lymphocyte-like cells that form clusters within the mediastinum and rapidly metastasize. 
     
    Small cell carcinoma

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