chapter 8

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chapter 8
2013-03-20 18:14:43
phut 52

chapter 8 vocab
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  1. When we know the chemical equation for a reaction, we can determine
    the amount of reactant needed or amount of product that can be produced
  2. the appearance of a substance is altered, but not its composition
    physical change
  3. when the reacting substances change in to new substances that have different compositions and different properties
    chemical change
  4. when the original substances change to new substances with different physical properties and different compositions
    chemical reaction
  5. in a chemical reaction all of the atoms of the original substances are found in
    the new substance or product
  6. tells us the materials we need and the products that will form in a chemical reaction
    chemical equation
  7. in a equation, the formula of the reactants are written on the
    left side of the arrow
  8. in a equation, the formula of the products are written on the
    right side of the arrow
  9. if a substance is dissolved in water it is an
    aqueous solution
  10. in any chemical reaction, the amount of matter
    does not change
  11. a chemical reaction must be written as a
    balanced equation
  12. whole numbers
  13. whole numbers placed in front of the formula in an equation to balance the number of atoms or moles of atom of each element in an equation
  14. when two or more elements or compounds bond to form one product
    combination reaction
  15. when a single reactant splits in to two or more products
    decomposition reaction
  16. when elements in compounds are replaced by other elements
    replacement reactions
  17. when an uncombined element takes the place of an element in a compound
    single replacement reaction
  18. when the positive ions in the reacting compounds switch places
    double replacement reaction
  19. when fuel and oxygen are required and often the reaction produces carbon dioxide, water, and heat
    combustion reaction
  20. combustion reactions can also occur in
    the cells of the body in order to metabolize food
  21. there is no change in the total mass of the substances reacting in a chemical reaction, this is know as?
    law of conservation of mass
  22. a conversion factor that relates the number of moles of two compounds in an equation derived from their coefficients
    mole-mole factor
  23. the reactant that is completely used up in the reaction
    limiting reactant
  24. the reactant that remains after the limiting reactant is use up
    excess reactant
  25. the amount of product we could expect if all the reactants were converted to product according to the mole ratios of the equation
    theoretical yield
  26. the amount of product we collect when the reaction end
    actual yield
  27. why is the actual yield always lees the the theoretical yield?
    because some product is always lost
  28. the ratio of the actual yield of a reaction to the theoretical yield possible for the reaction
    percent yield
  29. Five types of reactions
    • combination reaction
    • decomposition
    • single replacement 
    • double replacement
    • combustion
  30. when 2 or more elements or compound form one product
    combination reaction
  31. a single reactant splits into 2 or more products
  32. an uncombined element takes the place of an element in a compound
    single replacement
  33. the cations in the two reacting compounds switch places
    double replacement
  34. fuel + oxygen products carbon dioxide, water, heat most of the time
  35. AB----->A+B
  36. 2 H2O--->2 H2+O2
  37. A+B---->AB
    combination reaction
  38. 2 H2+O2----->2 H2O
    combination reaction
  39. A+BC----->AC+B
    single replacement
  40. AB+CD--->AD+CB
    Double replacement
  41. B+O2----->BO2
  42. 1 Cal=
    1 kcal
  43. 1 Cal=
    4.184 kJ
  44. 1 kcal=
    1000 cal
  45. 1 kj=
  46. solid turns to gas- no temperature change
  47. gas turns to solid
  48. energy needed to vaporize 1g of liquid to gas
    heat of vaporation
  49. hv=(mass) (heat of vaporation)
    Heat of vaporation equation
  50. heat of vaporation=
    2260 joules/grams
  51. the amount of heat absorbed or released during a reaction that takes place at a constant pressure
    heat of reaction
  52. endothermic reaction=
  53. exothermic reaction=
  54. the energy of the products is greater than that of the reactants
  55. the products have less energy that the reactants
  56. exo means
  57. endo means