Biomed mod.16 obj.7-10

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jnikrap
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206477
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Biomed mod.16 obj.7-10
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2013-03-12 23:38:54
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Biomed mod 16 obj 10
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Biomed mod.16 obj.7-10
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  1. The Great vessels
    • the great vessels of the heart bring blood to and away from the heart.
    • Veins carry blood towards the heart,
    • Arteries carry blood away from the heart
    • Include:
    •   -Pulmonary trunk
    •   -pulmonary vein
    •   -Aorta
    •   -Venae cavae
  2. Venae cavae
    carry deoxygenated blood from the body back to the right atrium of the heart
  3. Superior vena cava
    returns blood from the body above the heart
  4. Inferior vena cava
    returns blood from the body below the heart
  5. Pulmonary trunk
    • carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the blood
    • it divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries.
    • These are the only arteries in the body carrying deoxygenated blood
  6. Pulmonary veins
    • blood returns to the left atrium through these
    • These are unique because they carry oxygenated blood
  7. Aorta
    • blood leaves the ventricles through the aorta
    • it is the largest artery of the body about 2-3 cm (1 inch)
    • The ascending aorta arches to the left forming an arch of the aorta.
    • it then descends to the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta.
  8. Patter of blood flow through the heart and great vessels (1-5)
    1. Blood from superior and inferior venae cavae enters right atrium

    2. Blood flows from right atrium to right ventricle via tricuspid valve

    3. Blood pumped from right ventricle to pulmonary trunk via pulmonary valve

    4. Blood oxygenated in pulmonary capillaries of lungs

    5. Blood returns to heart via pulmonary veins
  9. Pattern of blood flow through the heart and great vessels (6-10)
    6. Oxygenated blood from lungs returns to left atrium

    7. Blood flows through miral (bicuspid) valve into left ventricle

    8. Blood is pumped through aortic valve into aorta 

    9. Blood distributed to body through branches off aorta and other vessels into capillaries 

    10. Blood returns to heart via systemic veins and venae cavae
  10. see objective 8. p. 764
  11. true or false
    blood flows through the right and left side of the heart simultaneously.
    True.

    Valves open as pairs.
  12. True or False
    blood should flow smoothly through the chambers and valves of the heart.
    True.
  13. If a valve is narrow or leaky, a _____ _____ (extra heart sound) can be heard on ausculation
    heart murmur
  14. Valvular stenosis
    • occurs when valves are narrowed from being too stiff or from not opening properly
    • This makes the chamber have to work harder as there is no extra blood to pump.
  15. Valvular regurgitation
    • if valves are incompetent, blood flow leaks back into the chamber behind the valve
    • This makes the chamber have to work harder as there is no extra blood to pump.
  16. Mitral valve prolapse
    • most common valvular heart disease
    • often genetically inherited and more common in women than men.
    • The mitral valve may become leaky when the muscle of the left ventricle is damaged, usually due to myocardial infraction or hypoxia(lack of oxygen)
    • The left ventricle cannot pump blood sufficiently and becomes dilated (stretched out)
    • This can lead to mitral regurgitation
  17. True or false 
    Imaging studies can help diagnose valvular disorders.
    True.

    • -An MRI produces high contrast, good resoluton pictures of the heart.
    • -it is also good for seeing heart function including blood flow
  18. ________ ultrasounds can be used to measure the velocity and ________ of the blood.
    Dopplar, direction

    A microphone is placed over the skin which amplifies the sound of flowing blood.  Ultrasound takes the digital findings and makes them visueal
  19. True or False
    Blood flow through an incompetent valve is often turbulent instead of smooth.
    True.

    This can activate platelets which in turn can lead to the formation f blood clots.
  20. Endocarditis and other infections may lead to
    • bacterial growth (vegetations) on heart valves 
    • This not only leads to incompetent valves but can cause sepsis.
    • Parts of the vegetation may break free becoming emboli which may in turn lodge in vessels blocking blood flow.
  21. Autorhythmic
    • Special cardiac cells the fire and action potential without nervous stimulation 
    • When a heat is used for transplant, the autorythmic cells keeps the heart beating, even outside the body.
  22. Conduction system
    • Pacemakers 
    • Sinoatrial node (SA node)
    • Atrioventricular node (AV node)
    • Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
    • Purkinje fibers
    • see graphic on p. 768
  23. Pacemakers of heart
    • have autorhythmicity 
    • Theses fire action potentials at a regular rate even without outside stimulation or control
  24. Sinoatrial node (SA node)
    • the primary pacemakers (fire action potentials about 100 times per min.) 
    • a cluster of specialized heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) at the base of the heart
  25. Atrioventricular node (AV node)
    • location near juncition of left atrium and right ventricle  
    • these only act as pacemakers if SA node cells are dead (ectopic packmaker)
  26. Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
    • This bundle of conductive muscle cells leads from the AV node and through the interventricular septum 
    • AV bundle branches shortly after it begins into right and left bundle branches
  27. Purkinje fibers
    • these large-caliber, non-contractile cells conduct the electrical impulses to the cardiac muscle cells of the right and left ventricles
    • remember that because of gap junctions, all muscle cells of the ventricle contract at about the same time.

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