Chapter 9

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Chapter 9
2013-03-11 17:20:02
physical development cognitive middle childhood

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  1. Consequences of Malnutrition
    • -The cumulative effects of good nutrition combined with rapid development of the body’s immune system, offer greater protection against disease.
    • -Poverty continues to be a powerful predictor of ill health during the school years.
    • -Eating an evening meal with parents leads to a diet higher in fruits and lower in friend foods and soft drinks
  2. Obesity
    • -More likely to be overweight
    • -High blood pressure
    • -Respiratory problems
    • -diabetes
    • -liver, gall bladder disease
    • -cancer
    • -early death
  3. Causes of Obesity in Middle Childhood
    • -Overweight parents
    • -parents feeding practices(overfeeding, overly controling)
    • -low physical activity
    • -television
    • -cultural food environment
  4. Psychological and Social Consequences of Obesity
    Social isolation, Achievment problems, behavior problems, defiance, aggression
  5. Motor Development
    Flexibility, Balance, Agility, Force
  6. Flexibility
    Compared with preschoolers, school-age chidren are physically more pliable and elastic, a difference evident as they swing bats, kick balls, jump over hurdles, and execute tumbling routines
  7. Balance
    Improved balance supports many athletic skills, including running , skipping, throwing, kicking, and the rapid changes of direction required in team sports.
  8. Agility
    Quicker and more accurate movements are evident in the fancy footwork of dance and cheerleading and in the forward, backward and sideways motions used to dodge opponents in tag and soccer
  9. Force
    Older youngsters can throw and kick a ball harder and propel themselves farther off the ground when running and jumping
  10. Fine Motor Development
    development improves over the school years. Children usually master uppercase letters first because their horzontal and vertical motions are easier to control than the small curves of the lowercase alphabet
  11. Motor Development: Sex Differences
    Girls have an edge in fine-motorskills of handwriting and drawing and in gross-motor capacities that depend on balance and agility, such as hopping and skipping. But boys outperform firls on all other gross-motor skills and, in throwing and kicking, the gender gap is large
  12. Concrete operational stage
    Piaget's third stage of cognitive development extending from about 7 to 11 years of age during which thought becomes logical, flexible, and organized in its applicaiton to concrete information, but the capacity for abstract thinking is not yet present
  13. Information processing view of concrete operations
    • -some neo-piagetian theorist argue that the development of operation thinking can best be understood interms of gains in information-speed rather than suddent shift to a new stage
    • -when congnitive themes demand less attend and become more automatic then, there is free space in working memory so children can focus on combining old schemes and generating new ones
  14. Information processing view of concrete operations: Central coneptual structures
    Networks of concepts and relations that permit them to think more effectively about a wid reange of situation
  15. Basic Changes in informational processing
    • -Increases in information-processing speed
    • and capacity

    -Digit span

    -Gains in inhibition
  16. Increases in information-processing speed and capacity
    Time needed to process informaiton on a wide variety of cognitive tasks declines rapidly between ages 6 and 12
  17. Digit span
    assesses the basic capacity of working memory, improves about 5 digits at age 7 to 7 digits at age 12
  18. Gain inhibition
    The ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli-- improves form infacy on; inhibition can prevent their minds from straying to irrelevant thoughts
  19. Attention
    In middle childhood, attention becomes more selective , adaptive and planful
  20. Memory Strategies
    deliberate mental activities we use to store or reatain information
  21. Types of Memory Strategies
    Rehearsal, Organization, Elaboration
  22. Rehearsal (early gradeschool)
    repeating information to oneself
  23. Organization
    grouping related items together
  24. Elaboration
    creating a relationship, or shared meaning between two or more pieces of information that do not belong in the same category
  25. ADHD
    attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; involves inattention, impulsivity , and excess motor activity in academic social problems
  26. Orgins of ADHD
    • -Runs in families and is highly heritable
    • -exposure to prenata teratogens---such as illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco -- are linked to inattention and hyper activity
  27. Treating ADHD
    • The most effective intervention approach combines medicaiton with modeling and reinforcement of appropriate academic and social behavior
    • - lifelong disorder
  28. Cognitive self regulation
    process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts
  29. Phonological awaress
    continures to facilitate children's progress
  30. whole language approach
    An approach to beginning reading instructions that parallels natural lanfuage learning by exposing children to text in its complete form , using reading material that are whole and meaningful to promotoe appreciation of the communicative function of written language distinguished from phonics approach
  31. Phonic approach
    An approaching to beginning reading instruction that ephasizes coach children on phoncs-- basic rules dore translating written symbols into sounds-- before exposing them to complex reading material
  32. Defining intelligence
    Virtally all intelligence tests provide an overall score (the IQ) , which represent general intelligences, or reasoning ability, along with an array of separate scores measuring specific mental abilities