chapter 9 vocab

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phut52
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chapter 9 vocab
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2013-03-19 15:47:44
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chapter 9 vocab
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  1. the ability to do work or to supply heat
    energy
  2. the 2 classifications of energy
    • potential
    • kinetic
  3. stored energy
    potential energy
  4. energy of motion
    kinetic energy
  5. any object that is moving has
    kinetic energy
  6. determined by its position or by the chemical bonds it contain
    potential energy of an object
  7. the energy that flows from a warmer object to a cooler one
    heat
  8. associated with the motion of particles
    heat
  9. the faster the particles move
    the greater the heat or thermal energy
  10. the SI unit of energy and work
    joule (J) (jewel)
  11. the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree Celsius (old definition)
    calorie
  12. one calorie=
    4.184 J
  13. every substance can absorb
    heat
  14. the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of exactly one 1 g of a substance by exactly 1 degree Celcius
    specific heat
  15. in heat calculations, the temperature change is always the difference between the
    final temp and initial temp
  16. used to measure the temperature when a sample gains or loses heat
    calorimeter
  17. when very strong attractive forces hold the particles close together
    solid
  18. when particles have enough energy to move freely in random directions
    liquid
  19. when the molecules move at high speed creating great distances between molecules
    gas
  20. attractive forces between oppositely charged ends of polar molecules
    dipole-dipole attractions
  21. when a strong attractive force occurs between the partially positive hydrogen atom and the strongly electronegative atoms F,O or N
    hydrogen bond
  22. weak dipole bonding that results from a momentary polarization of non polar molecules in a substance
    dispersion forces
  23. nonpolar compounds form solids at
    low temperatures
  24. when matter is converted form one state to another state
    change of state
  25. a point when the particles in the solid gain sufficient energy to overcome the energy of the attractive forces that hold them together
    melting point (mp)
  26. change from a solid to liquid
    melting
  27. liquid to solid
    freezing
  28. point in which a liquid becomes a solid
    freezing point (fp)
  29. needed to separate the particles of a sold
    heat of fusion
  30. when the particles on the surface of a solid absorb enough heat to change directly to a gas with no temp change
    sublimation
  31. reverse process of sublimation
    deposition
  32. takes place when fast moving water molecules have enough energy to escape form the surface
    evaporation
  33. when the water molecules form liquid again as attractive forces pull the together
    condensation
  34. when the particle throughout the liquid have the energy needed to change in to a gas
    boiling point
  35. occurs as gas bubbles form throughout the liquid, then rise to the surface and escape
    boiling
  36. a diagram that shows the temp changes and changes of state of a substance as it is heated
    heating curve
  37. a diagram  that shows temp changes and changes of states for a substance as heat is removed
    cooling curve
  38. amount of heat absorbed or released during a reaction that takes place at constant pressure
    heat of reaction
  39. energy of the products is greater than that of the reactants
    endothermic reaction
  40. the products have less energy than the reactants
    exothermic reaction
  41. Unit of heat and work
    Joule (jewel)
  42. amount of heat needed to raise temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celcius
    calorie
  43. 1 cal=
    4.184 J
  44. 1 kcal=
    4,184 kj
  45. the amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of any substance by 1 degree celcius
    specific heat
  46. S= H
        ---
        MdeltaT
         
    specific heat equation
  47. H=SmdeltaT
    Heat Equation
  48. 3 types of Attractive forces
    • 1. Dipersion forces
    • 2. Dipole-Dipole
    • 3. Hydrogen Bond
  49. Weakest; found in nonpolar molecules
    dipersion forces
  50. in polar molecules b/c of attractions between the (+) end of one molecule and the (-) end of another molecule
    Dipole-Dipole
  51. special Dipole-Dipole----occurs between H in one molecule and either F,O, or N in another molecule
    Hydrogen Bond
  52. energy needed to separtate the particles in a solid
    heat of fusion
  53. 334J
    Heat of fusion

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