Human Development Exam 3

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  1. Childhood obesity
    40% of 9 and 10 year olds are trying to lose weight. 15% of U.S. children are obese.
  2. Growth rate
    6 year olds weigh about 46 lbs and are 46 in tall
  3. Greatest risk for a preschoolers health
    lead poisoning
  4. Quality childcare
    • 1) care providers well trained
    • 2) child-care center has an appropriate size and ration of care providers to children. 14- 20 children, no more than 5-10 3 year olds per caregiver, or 7-10 5 year olds
    • 3) curriculum is carefully planned out 
    • 4) language environment is rich
    • 5) caregivers are sensitive to children's emotional and social needs
    • 6) materials and activities are age appropriate
    • 7) basic health and safety standards are followed
  5. Lead poisoning
    14 million children at risk
  6. Accidents
    • body are more apt to injury than girls 
    • increased mobility
    • auto crashes kill 4 out of every 100,000 children between the ages of 5 and 9
  7. Children's brain weight compared to adults
    • 2 years- 3/4 of size and weight
    • 5 years- 90%
  8. Left hemisphere
    speaking, reading, thinking, and reasoning
  9. right hemisphere
    nonverbal areas such as comprehension of spatial relationships, recognition of patterns and drawings, music, and emotional expression
  10. Cerebellum
    part of the brain that controls balance and movement
  11. Myelin
    a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses
  12. Corpus callosum
    bundle of nerves that connects the hemispheres of the brain
  13. reticular formation
    area of the brain associated with attention and concentration 
  14. Age that child can perform certain tasks such as running, skipping, ect
    age 3
  15. Gross motor skills of five year old
    • Can start, turn, and stop effectively in games
    • Can make a running jump of 28-36 in
    • Can descend a long stairway alternating the ft
    • Can easily hop a distance of 16 ft
  16. Centration
    the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus ignoring other aspects.
  17. Symbolic functioning
  18. Language acquisition
    a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of language
  19. Concrete operational stage
    the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic
  20. Transformation
    the process in which one state is changed into another
  21. Egocentric thought
    thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others
  22. Intuitive thought
    thinking that reflects preschooler's use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world
  23. Conservation
    the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects
  24. Identitification
    the process in which children attempt to be similar to their same-sex parent, incorporating the parent's attitudes and values
  25. Functional play 
    play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds
  26. Picture memory
  27. Visual memory
  28. Autobiographical memory
    memories of info about one's own life
  29. Biographical memory
  30. Scaffolding
    the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth
  31. Schema
    organized body of info stored in memory
  32. Zone of proximal development
    according to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost but not fully perform a task independently but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent
  33. Script
    broad representation in memory of events and the order in which they occur 
  34. Grammer
    they system of rules that determines how our thoughts can be expressed
  35. Pragmatic speech
    the aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others
  36. Private speech
    speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves
  37. Syntax
    the ay in which an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences
  38. Self-concept
    a person's identity or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual
  39. Autonomy versus shame
    having independence and a sense of control over one's life
  40. Individualistic orientation
    a philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual
  41. Initiative versus guilt
    according to Erikson, the period during which children aged 3 to six years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action. 
  42. collectivistic orientation
    a philosophy that promotes the notion of interdependence
  43. individualistic orientation
    a philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual 
  44. race dissonance
    the phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people
  45. social learning
    learning gender related behavior and expectations by observing others
  46. Freudian
  47. individualistic orientation
  48. Erikson's conflict-resolution
  49. gender identity
    the perception of oneself as male or female
  50. sexual identity
  51. gender constancy
    the belief that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors
  52. gender schema
    cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender
  53. androgynous
    a state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes
  54. functional play
    play that involves simple, repetitive actives typical of 3-year-olds
  55. associative play
    play in which two or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing.
  56. constructive play
    play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something
  57. parallel play
    action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner but do not interact with each other 
  58. children with autism find it difficult to relate to people because
  59. permissive
    parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children
  60. authoritarian
    parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose word is law
  61. authoritative parenting
    parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way
  62. most form of child abuse
  63. preschool morality
  64. heteronomous morality
  65. resilience
    the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at higher risk for psychological or physical damage
  66. morality
  67. modeling
  68. empathy
    the understanding of what another individual feels
  69. social learning
  70. emotional self-regulation
    the capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity
  71. instrumental aggression
    aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal 
  72. relational aggression
    non physical aggression that is intended to hurt another person's feelings
  73. elementary school children grow
    • 2 to 3 inches every year. 
    • 11- 4 ' 10", 4' 9"

    weight 5-7 lbs per year 
  74. gross motor activities middle childhood
    ride a bike, ice skate, swim, jump rope
  75. the age children can use each hand individually
  76. asthma
    a chronic condition characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
  77. stuttering
    substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech
  78. auditory language processing disorder
  79. auditory impairment
    a special need that involves the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing
  80. learning disabilities
    difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities 
  81. mental retardation
    a disability characterized by significant limitations both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior involving conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills
  82. developmental delays
  83. adhd and its signs
    a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity
  84. bipolar
  85. childhood schizophrenia
  86. anxiety disorder
  87. concrete operational
    the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active, and appropriate, use of logic
  88. decentering
    the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account
  89. abstract operational
    the process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles
  90. preoperational
  91. formation
  92. reversibility
  93. metamemory
    an understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood
  94. recall
  95. rehearsal
  96. working memory
  97. cooperative learning
  98. metalinguistic awareness
    an understanding of one's own use of language
  99. bilingualism
    the use of more than one language
  100. code-based approach
  101. cultural assimilation model
    a model in which the goal of education is to assimilate individual cultural identities into a unique, unified american culture. 
  102. bicultural identity
    maintaining one's original cultural identity while integrating oneself into the dominant culture
  103. intelligence quotient
    a measure of intelligence that takes account of student's mental and chronological age
  104. fluid intelligence
    intelligences that reelects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
  105. self esteem
    an individual's overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation
  106. self concept
    a person's identity, or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual
  107. social comparison
    the desire to evaluate one's own behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions by comparing them to those of others
  108. preconventional morality
    the concrete interests of the individual are considered in terms of rewards and punishments
  109. conventional morality
    people approach moral problems as members of society. THey are interested in pleasing others by acting as good me members of society
  110. postconventional morality
    people use moral principles that are seen as broader than those of any particular society
  111. women's morality
    • stage 1- orientation toward individual survival 
    • stage 2- goodness as self-sacrifice
    • stage 3- morality of nonviolence
  112. the stages of building friendship
    • stage 1- basing friendship on others' behavior
    • stage 2- basing friendship on trust
    • stage 3- basing friendship on psychological closeness
  113. status
    the evaluation by society of the role a person plays
  114. social competence
    the collection of social skills that permits individuals to perform successfully in social settings. 
  115. social problem-solving
    thte use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others
  116. popular children't personality
  117. border work
  118. middle school age boys personality
    dominance hierarchy
  119. boys play versus girls play
    boys- restrictive play 
  120. self-care children
    let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their parents return from work
  121. blended family
    a remarried couple has at least one stepchild living with them.
  122. orphanage has changed to what
    group home
Card Set:
Human Development Exam 3
2013-03-13 03:14:04
human development

human development
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