Psychology

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Author:
gskinner
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206536
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Psychology
Updated:
2013-03-11 21:00:45
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Exam 3 - Chapter 5 and 8
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  1. Stage 1 sleep
    The state of transition between wakefulness and sleep. Characterized by relatively rapid, low-amplitude brain waves. Lasts only a few minutes
  2. Stage 2 sleep
    A sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles". Half of the total sleep time of those in their 20's
  3. Stage 3 sleep
    A sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern than in stage 2 sleep.
  4. Stage 4 sleep
    The deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.
  5. Sleep spindles
    Momentary interruptions of sharply pointed, spiky waves
  6. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep
    Sleep occupying 20% of an adult's sleeping time, characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate; erections; eye movements; and the experience of dreaming. The major muscles of the body appear to be paralyzed.
  7. REM Rebound Effect
    People deprived of REM sleep, by being awakened every time they begin to display the physiological signs of that stage, show a rebound effect when allowed to rest undisturbed. REM-deprived sleepers spend significantly more time in a REM sleep than they normally would.
  8. Unconscious wish fulfillment theory
    Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire to see fulfilled
  9. Latent Content of Dreams
    According to Freud, the "disguised" meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects
  10. Manifest Content of Dreams
    According to Freud, the apparent story line of dreams
  11. dreams for survival theory
    The theory suggesting that dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep
  12. Activation-Synthesis Theory
    Hobson's theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulates memories stored in the brain. Because we have a need to make sense of our world even while asleep, the brain takes these chaotic memories and weaves them into a logical story line, filling in the gaps to produce a rational scenario.
  13. Insomnia
    Difficulty sleeping. Could be due to a particular situation such as a loss of a job or it could have no obvious cause. Afflicts 1/3 of the population.
  14. Sleep Apnea
    a condition in which a person has difficulty breathing while sleeping. Disturbed, fitful sleep, and a significant loss of REM sleep, as the person is constantly reawakened when the lack of oxygen becomes great enough to trigger a waking response. Cause extreme fatigue the next day.
  15. Night Terrors
    Sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that are accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physiological arousal. Occurs during stage 4 sleep and less frequent than nightmares and occur in Non-REM sleep.
  16. Narcolepsy
    uncontrollable sleeping that occurs for short periods while a person is awake. People go from wakefulness to REM sleep, skipping the other stages.
  17. Circadian Rhythms
    biological processes that occur regularly on approximately a 24-hour cycle.
  18. Daydreams
    Fantasies that people construct while awake. Several areas of the brain that are associated with complex problem solving become activated during daydreaming, suggesting that daydreaming may lead to insights about problems
  19. Sleep better
    • exercise during the day and avoid naps
    • choose a regular bedtime and stick to it
    • avoid drinks with caffeine after lunch
    • drink a glass of milk at bedtime
    • avoid sleeping pills
    • try not to sleep
  20. Hypnosis
    A trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the suggestions of others.

    • Four steps:
    • 1. Person is made comfortable in a quiet environment.
    • 2. The hypnotist explains what is going to happen
    • 3. The hypnotist tells the person to concentrate on a specific object or image
    • 4. Once the subject is in a highly relaxed state, the hypnotist may make suggestions that the person interprets as being produced by hypnosis

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