21.1.3

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21.1.3
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  1. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    • a.      The European powers’ fears of revolution and war led them to develop the Concert of Europe to maintain the new status quo they constructed
    •                                                               i.      Accord grew out of reaffirmation of the Quadruple Alliance in November 1815
    • 1.      Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria renewed their commitment against any attempted restoration of Bonapartist power and agreed to meet periodically in conferences to discuss their common interests and examine measures that will be preferred
  2. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Congresses
    • a.      In accordance with agreement for periodic meetings, four congresses held (1818-1822)
    •                                                               i.      First: held in 1818 at Aix-la-Chapelle= most congenial
    • 1.      Four great powers agreed to withdraw their army of occupation from France and to add France to the Concert of Europe
    • a.      Quadruple Allianceà Quintuple alliance
  3. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Second Congress
    •                                                               i.      Second: at Troppau called in autumn of 1820 to deal with outbreak of revolution in Spain and Italy
    • 1.      Revolt in Spain was directed against Ferdinand VII (Bourbon king who had been restored to throne in 1814)
    • 2.      In s. Italy, the restoration of another Bourbon, Ferdinand I, as king of Naples and Sicily sparked a rebellion that spread to Piedmont in n. Italy
  4. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    The Principle of Intervention
    •                                                               i.      Metternich disturbed by revolts in Italy because he saw them as threat to Austria’s domination of the peninsulaà principle of intervention
    • 1.      Meant that great powers of Europe had right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones
  5. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Britain's Refusal
    • a.      Britain refused to agree to principle, saying it was never intention of Quadruple Alliance to interfere in internal affairs of other states, only France
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Ignoring British response, Austria, Prussia and Russia, met again at third congress
  6. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Third Congress and Fourth Post war Conference
    •                                                               i.      Third Congress: Laibach in January 1821      
    • 1.      Authorized the sending of Austrian troops to Naples
    • a.      These forces crushed the revolt, restored Ferdinand I to the throne, and moved north to suppress the rebels in Piedmont
    •                                                             ii.      Fourth post war conference: Verona in October 1822
    • 1.      Same three powers authorized France to invade Spain to crush the revolt against Ferdinand VII
    • Spring of 1823: French forces restored Bourbon monarch
  7. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Success of Policy
    •                                                               i.      Success of policy had price
    • 1.      Concert of Europe broke down when British rejected Metternich’s principle of intervention
    • a.      Although British failed to thwart allied intervention in Spain and Italy, they were successful in keeping the Continental powers from interfering with the revolutions in Latin America
  8. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    The Revolt in Latin America
    •                                                               i.      Much of N. America freed of European domination in the 18th century by the American Revolution, Latin America was owned by Spain and Portugal.
    • 1.      End of 18th: ideas of the Enlightenment and new political ideals stemming from the successful revolution in N. America were influencing the Creole elites
  9. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Principles
    • 1.      Principles of the equality of all people in the eyes of the law, free trade, and a free press= attractive
    • a.      Sons of creoles, like Simon Bolivar of Venezuela and Jose de San Martin of Argentina= leaders in independence movement
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Attended European universities, where they imbibed ideas of the Enlightenment
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Joined by merchants, they resented Spain and Portugal’s domination of their trade
  10. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Beginning of 19th
    • 1.      Beginning of 19th: Napoleon’s continental wars enabled Creole change
    • a.      When Napoleon toppled monarchies of Spain and Portugal, the latter’s authority in their colonial empires was weakenedà revolts for independence
  11. Simon Bolivar
    •                                                               i.      Simon Bolivar= George Washington of Latin America
    • 1.      Wealthy Venezuelan family introduced young to Enlightenment
    • 2.      Witnessed coronation of Napoleon as king of Italy and dedicated himself to free people from Spaniards
    • 3.      Returned to S. America and began struggle for independence in Venezuela and S. America
    • 4.      :liberator” in 1813 but actually defeated Spanish in 1821à liberate Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru
    • a.      1819: president of Venezuela
  12. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Jose de San Martin
    • 1.      Tried to free southern part of continent
    • 2.      Son of Spanish army officer and went to Spain and pursued a military career in the Spanish army
    • 3.      1811: heard of liberation movement in Argentina, left military of Spain (after 11 years) and went home
    • a.      Argentina already freed, but Martin wanted Spaniards out
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      January 1817: led forces over Andes (2/3 of mules and horses died and soldiers too)
    • 1.      Arrival in Chile: surprised and defeated Spaniards at Battle of Chacabuco on Feb 12, 1817
  13. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    1821: Jose
    • 1.      1821: moved on to Lima, Peru, the center of Spanish authority
    • a.      Didn’t believe he could complete liberation of Peru and welcomed Bolivar
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Left S. America for Europe, where he remained until he died outside Paris in 1850
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Bolivar crushed last Spanish army at Ayacucho
    • 1.      Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile=free states
  14. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    1823
    •                                                               i.      1823: Central American states became independent and divided into five republics
    • 1.      Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua
    • a.      1822: prince regent of Brazil declared Brazil’s independence from Portugal
  15. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Continental powers
    •                                                               i.      Continental powers favored use of troops to restore Spanish control in L. America
    • 1.      British opposed to intervene
    • a.      Eager to gain access to entire continent for investment and trade, the Brits proposed joint action with the US against European interference in Latin America
    • b.      James Monroe distrusted British and acted alone in 1823, guaranteeing independence of new Latin American nations and warning against any further European intervention in New World in famous Monroe Doctrine
  16. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Greater importance
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      British ships more important to Latin American independence than American words
    • 1.      Britain’s navy stood between Latin America and any European invasion force, and Continental powers extremely reluctant to challenge British naval power
  17. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Political and economic independence
    •                                                               i.      Political independence brought economic independence to Latin America, old patterns were reestablished
    • 1.      Instead of Spain and Portugal, Great Britain dominated the Latin American economy
    • a.      British merchants moved in in large numbers, while British investors poured in funds, especially in the mining industry
  18. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Old trade patterns reemerged
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Latin America was source of raw materials and foodstuffs for industrialized nations of Europe and US= exports to North Atlantic countries increased
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      At same time, finished consumer goods were imported in increasing quantities, causing decline in industrial production in Latin America
    • 1.      Emphasis on exporting raw materials and importing finished products ensured ongoing domination of the Latin American economy by foreigners
  19. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    The Greek Revolt
    •                                                               i.      Intervention was to prevent revolution, but it also supported revolution if great powers wanted to
    • 1.      1821; Greeks revolted against Ottoman Turkish mastersà allowed to maintain language and Greek orthodox faith
    • a.      Revival of Greek national sentiment at beginning of 19th added to growing desire for liberation from Turks
  20. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    The Greek Revolt Soon Transformed...
    •                                                               i.      Soon transformed into noble cause by lots of European sentiment
    • 1.      1827: combined British and French fleet went to Greece and defeated Ottoman armada
    • 2.      A year later, Russia declared war on Ottoman Empire and invaded European provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia
  21. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Treaty of Adrianople
    • a.      Treaty of Adrianople in 1829: ended Russian-Turkish war
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Russians received protectorate overt two provinces
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Ottomans agreed to let Russia, France, and Britain decide Greece’s fate
    • 1.      1830: three powers declared Greece an independent kingdom, and two years later, a new royal dynasty established
  22. I.                   Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
    Revolution successful?
    •                                                               i.      Revolution successful only because great powers supported it
    • 1.      Until 1830, the Greek revolt was the only successful one in Europe; the conservative domination was still intact

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