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What are the 3 types of wound healing ?
- First intention healing: simple cut, clean wound. Can be sutured or glued together, no infection or necrosis
- Second intention healing: contamination or infection present. Wound must be debrided, longer healing time required.
- Third intention healing: changing a second intention wound to a first intention wound by cutting away the excess granulation tissue, appose the wound edges and suture closed.
What is Debridement?
make it bleed again, cut the edges to make it first intentin healing.
How do you care for a wound ?
- 1. Control hemorrhage
- 2. Evaluate for shock and treat.
- 3. Once the animal is stabilized, clean the wound.
- 4. Clip the hair around the wound. Cover the wound with sterile ointment so that the clipped hair does not contaminate it
- 5. Scrub or flush the wound liberally with a sterile solution.
- 6. Debride the non-living tissue.
After how many hours should a wound Not be closed ?
6 - 8 hours.
What are the 3 layers of bandage material ?
- First layer: needed if wound is present. Functrion is to cover the wound so that the other bandage material does not stick. Ex. Telfa pad, gauze squares.
- Second layer: needed for all bandages. function is to absorb wound secretions, hold first layer on, cushion wound. ex. plain gauze
- Third layer: needed for all bandages. function is to thol bandage onto the animal, and to protect it from outside elements. Ex. Vetrap
List indications for bandaging.
- To protect a wound from the environment
- To hold dressings in place
- To provide support to tissues
- To prevent self trauma
- To control edema
- To maintain a proper environment for healing
- To restrict use of a limb
- To suport indwelling catheters and drains
- To prevent seromas
What are the uses for bandages ?
Uses soft materials and therefore not rigid. Used in fractures and dislocations, they are only used to bandage the affect part securely to a firm part of the body.
Splint usages ?
Utilizes rigid, nonconforming materials as well as soft materials. May be used to temporarily support a fracture, or a permanent support.
Cast usages ?
Employs strong rigid support through the use of plaster of paris, fiberglass, etc. to completely immobilize the affected bone. Soft materials are only used as padding.
When do you use a splint/cast instead of a bandage ?
- When complete immobilization is required (fracture)
- Administration of I.V. fluids (restrict movement of leg)
- Tendon or ligament injury where support is required
- Temporary support
- Contracted tendons
What are some complications that are associated with bandaging ?
- Bandages need to be changed frequently. Pus can privide an ideal environment for growth of bacteria
- Bandages must be kept dry
- healing needs to be assessed frequently
- To ensure a bandage is not applied too tightly, you should be able to slip one or two fingers under the edge.
- It may be necessary to use retraining devices such as an elizabethan collar to prevent chewing and removal of the bandage by animal
- Chafing especially in the groin and axillary regions can cause additional trauman and pain.
What are some general guidelines for applying bandages ? May need to know to discuss with owner.
- Check the tightness by inserting a finger under the material
- When wrapping material up the leg,start distally and move proximally, then wind back distally
- Hold bandage rolls underhand, NOT overhand
- As bandage material is wound up the leg, overlap 1/3 to 1/2 of the bandage adjacent to it
- Do not encircle the leg, adavance the bandage up and down leg at an angle
- Be sure to pad the prominences (elbow, hock)
- cut adhesive tape strips ahead of time
- Avoid wrinkles and bags
- If applying a bandage across the neck or chest do NOT constrict breathing
What is the proper home care for bandaging ? (Owner)
- Keep the bandage clea
- keep bandgae dry
- Watch for swelling in the lower extremities
- Monitor toes for swelling, decreased temperature or odour
- Do not allow pet to lick or chew bandage
- If bandage slips- return to vet immediatly
- Do not try to fix or tape by your self
- Observe area by the tape for chafing
- Restrict exercise
- Return for regular visits to have bandage/splint/cast checked
- Increased lameness or pain may be a serious sign and should be rechecked by vet