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Includes the bones of the skeleton and cartilages, joints, ligaments and other connective tissues that stabilize or connect them.
Primary Functions of Skeletal System
- 1. Support
- 2. Storage
- 3. Blood cell production
- 4. Protection
- 5. Leverage
Supporting connective tissue that contains specialized cells and a matrix that consists of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance.
Four General Shapes of Bones
Short (Carpals) Long (Humerus) Flat (Skull) Irregular (Vertebra)
Central shaft of long bone that surrounds marrow cavity
The expanded section at each end of a bone, which is covered by articular cartilage.
Two Types of Bone Tissue
Compact and spongy (cancellous). Compact bone is relatively solid whereas spongy bone resembles a network of bony rods or struts separated by spaces.
Inner surface of bone
Outer surface of bone. The fibers of tendons and ligaments intermingle with those of the periosteum
The basic functional unit of compact bone, also called the Haversian System contain blood vessels.
Small channels that radiate through the matrix, and interconnect lacunae and link them to nearby blood vessels
Perpendicular channels in a bone to link blood vessels together
Small sheets of calcified matrix which wrap around blood vessels
Small pockets in the bone found between sheets of calcified matrix
Requirements for Normal Bone Growth
- Vitamin D3
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin C
Mature bone cells. Maintain normal bone structure by recycling the calcium salts in the bony matrix around themselves and by assisting in repairs.
Giant cells with 50 or more nuclei. Dissolve the bony matrix and release the stored minerals through osteolysis.
Cells responsible for the production of new bone, a process called osteogeneration. When an osteoblast becomes completely surrounded by calcified matrix, it differentiates into an osteocyte.
The process of replacing other tissues with bone
Bone replaces cartilage.
"Growth plates" that sit at ends of bone and increase the length of the developing bone. When sex hormone production increases at puberty, bone growth accelerates dramatically and osteoblasts begin to produce bone faster than epiphyseal cartilage expands.
Processed in the liver into calcitriol, which is a hormone that stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphate ions in the digestive tract.
Role of Calcium in Bones
Typical body contains between 1-2kg of calcium, 99% of which is deposited in skeleton. If levels of calcium increase by 30% neurons and muscle cells lose responsiveness. An increase of 30% causes excitability to the point of convulsions. A 50% increase usually causes death. Hormones parathyroid hormone and calcitriol increases serum calcium. Calcitonin depresses serum calcium.
Bone Injury and Repair Steps
- 1. Extensive bleeding. After several hours a clot forms.
- 2. Internal callus forms as a network of spongy bone unites inner and outer edges.
- 3. Cartilage of external callus has been replaced by bone.
- 4. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts remodel the bone back to its original shape.
- An injury that stretches or tears one or more ligaments within a joint.
- Grade 1. Minor and incomplete tear.
- Grade 2. Significant but incomplete tear.
- Grade 3. Complete tear and total failure of the ligament or ligaments involved.
Also called a partial dislocation, is a partial displacement of a bone end from its position within a joint capsule.
Salter Harris Classifications of Growth Plate Injuries
Common Extremity Fractures
- Colles Fracture: Distal radial fracture resembling a fork.
- Supracondylar Fracture: Distal humerus superior to epiphysis.
LeFort System of Classifying Facial Fractures
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