Science

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Author:
8thgradeclass
ID:
206577
Filename:
Science
Updated:
2013-03-11 22:46:16
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Chapter 16
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test tomorrow
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  1. What is a flowing water that follows a distinct course over the land?
    stream
  2. Who are scientists study Earth's water?
    hydrologists
  3. Virtually what do all streams begin as?
    fresh water
  4. What are three things that hydrologists study about a stream? What do these three things determine?
    Its elevation profile, its cross section, and its drainage basin; a stream's energy, the volume of water it carries, and how it affects the lands through which it flows
  5. What is the description of how the stream changes elevation from its beginning to its end.
    elevation profile
  6. What is the origin of the stream?
    source
  7. What is the steepness of a stream's channel?
    stream gradient
  8. The source of a stream usually has ____ elevation.
    high
  9. Where a stream flows into an ocean, lake, pond, or another stream.
    mouth
  10. What is the lowest the elevation to which a stream can flow?
    base level
  11. What is controlled mainly by the soil and rock through which the stream flows?
    stream gradient
  12. If you could slice through a stream crosswise, what would you be looking at?
    cross-section
  13. What are smaller streams that feed into larger streams?
    tributaries
  14. What does a stream and all its tributaries make up?
    stream system
  15. What is one way to classify a stream?
    by its complexity
  16. What is the land a stream drains?
    drainage basin
  17. What is the highest basin in North America?
    Continental Divide
  18. What is a ridge of mountains, hills, or even just higher land that separates one drainage basin to another?
    divide
  19. How many divides are in North America? Name them.
    • 1.Continental Divide
    • 2.Eastern Continental Divide
    • 3.St.Lawrence Divide
  20. What are stretches where large rocks create turbulence?
    rapids
  21. What forms where there is a very sudden change in streambed elevation?
    waterfall
  22. What is the tallest waterfall in the world?
    Angel Falls
  23. What is formed when a streams gradient approaches zero; wide looping bends in a stream?
    meander
  24. What is just a side loop from the main stream surrounding an island?
    cutoff
  25. What results when a meander is cut off by a stream?
    oxbow lake
  26. What is a a broad, level area surrounding a low-gradient river, created by regular flooding of a river. It usually has very fertile topsoil deposited by floods.
    floodplain
  27. What is the most famous floodplain?
    Nile River
  28. What are shipping obstacles that are always shifting with seasons or storms?
    river bars
  29. Who are special navigators that help ship captains safely travel through river bars?
    river pilots
  30. What built on both sides of a frequently flooding river to keep it from flooding the land?
    levees
  31. What is a stream that flows year round?
    perennial stream
  32. What is a stream that only flows after heavy rainstorms, during snowmelt, or during wet seasons?
    intermittent streams
  33. What is the channel of a seasonally dry streambed?
    wash, wadi, or arroyo
  34. Where is the largest power dam in the world? What is its source of water?
    China; Yangtze
  35. What is any isolated body of water that does not freely share water with the ocean?
    lake
  36. Are all lakes freshwater?
    no
  37. How much percent of the earth's liquid freshwater is made up of lakes?
    87%
  38. What is the world's largest freshwater lake?
    Lake Superior
  39. What is the world's largest lake?
    Caspian Sea
  40. What lake is nearly eight times as salty as seawater?
    Great Salt Lake
  41. What is the world's largest salt flat?
    Salar de Uyuni
  42. What is the deepest lake in the United States?
    Crater Lake
  43. Who are scientists that study surface waters?
    Limnologists
  44. Who is the father of limnology?
    Francois-Alphonse Forel
  45. What is
  46. What is the process by which lakes exchange surface and bottom water as they cool and warm with seasons?
    thermal turnover
  47. What are necessary to carry oxygen to the lower reaches of lakes?
    seasonal turnover

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