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Functions of the Nervous System
- 1. Detect stimuli in the environment
- 2. Recognize the significance of the eenvironmental stimuli
- 3. Make a decision based on the stimuli
- 4. Execute a response
What does the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) do?
Detects environment information inside and outside the body, which is then transmitted to the CNS
What does the Central Nervous System (CNS) do?
Recognizes and analyzes information from the PNS, makes decisions, and transmits decisions to glands, organs, and muscles for execution.
- Shows structure viewed from above
- Shows structures viewed from the side
- Frontal Section
- Shows views from the front
Gray matter is the location of _________________.
cell bodies and dendrites
White matter is the ____________________ that project to various brain regions to transmit messages.
3 large axonal fibers connecting the 2 hemispheres together
- Corpus Callosum
- Anterior Commissure
- Posterior Commissure
Left side of brain
- Processed by right side of body
- Analytic thought
- Science and Math
Right side of brain
- Processed by left side of body
- Hollistic thought
- Art and Music
- Nerve - collection of axons outside the CNS
- Tract - a collection of axons within the CNS
- Afferent - axons arriving towards the CNS (Sensory)
- Efferent - axons leaving the CNS (Motor)
Somatic Nervous System
- Afferent and efferent nerves
- 31 pairs of spinal nerves
- Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacral
Dorsal root ganglion
- sensory neuron cell bodies
- motor neuron axons
- cell bodies in gray matter
The face has spinal nerves. True or false?
12 Cranial Nerves
- Spinal accessory
- Sudden weakness and paralysis on one side of face from injury to facial nerve
- Cranial Nerve VII
What two neurons control the internal environment?
- Noradrenergic neurons
- Cholinergic neurons
Sympathetic Nervous System
- Activated during arousal and stressful periods
- Mobilizes and uses stored and available energy
- Prepares the body to "flight" or "flee"
- Nerves exit CNS from Thoracic and Lumbar regions
- Second synapse far (diffuse action)
- Norepinephrine is released
Parasympathetic Nervous System
- Activated during non stressful conditions or period of recovery
- Allows organism to replenish energy
- Prepares the body to "rest and restore"
- Nerves exit CNS from Sacral regions of spinal cord or brain (vagus nerve)
- Second synapse close (discrete action)
- Acetylcholine is released
- Dura matter - tough outer membrane
- Arachnoid matter - web like membrane
- Subarachnoid space (blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid)
- Pia matter - delicate and is layer adjacent to CNS
- Clear fluid that cushions and protects CNS and provides nutrients
- Manufactured by the Choroid Plexus
Build up of CSF caused by blockage of the cerebral aqueduct or constriction of subarachnoid space
Inflammation of membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
- Quite severe
- Brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities
Blood brain barrier
- Endothelial cells that make up the blood prevent most chemicals from passing into the brain
- Blood supply: provides glucose, amino acids, oxygen
- Tighter junctions in cells is the blood brain barrier
What surrounds the brain capilaries?
L-DOPA, Dopamine, and Parkinson's and Blood Brain Barrier
- Parkinson's is due to dying dopamine
- Cannot give patients dopamine because it can't cross blood brain barrier
- L-DOPA is given and can cross blood brain barrier
toward the front
toward the rear
toward the midline
away from the midline
above a structure
below a structure
on the same side
on opposite side