PSY 241 Lecture 7

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PSY 241 Lecture 7
2013-03-12 00:43:25
nervous system psychobiology arturo zavala

Nervous System
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  1. Functions of the Nervous System
    • 1. Detect stimuli in the environment
    • 2. Recognize the significance of the eenvironmental stimuli
    • 3. Make a decision based on the stimuli
    • 4. Execute a response
  2. What does the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) do?
    Detects environment information inside and outside the body, which is then transmitted to the CNS
  3. What does the Central Nervous System (CNS) do?
    Recognizes and analyzes information from the PNS, makes decisions, and transmits decisions to glands, organs, and muscles for execution.
  4. Horizontal section
    • Shows structure viewed from above
  5. Sagittal Section
    • Shows structures viewed from the side
  6. Coronal Section
    • Frontal Section
    • Shows views from the front
  7. Gray matter is the location of _________________.
    cell bodies and dendrites
  8. White matter is the ____________________ that project to various brain regions to transmit messages.
    axonal fibers
  9. 3 large axonal fibers connecting the 2 hemispheres together
    • Corpus Callosum
    • Anterior Commissure
    • Posterior Commissure
  10. Left side of brain
    • Processed by right side of body
    • Language
    • Logic
    • Analytic thought
    • Science and Math
  11. Right side of brain
    • Processed by left side of body
    • Hollistic thought
    • Intuition
    • Creativity
    • Art and Music
  12. Axon Terminology
    • Nerve - collection of axons outside the CNS
    • Tract - a collection of axons within the CNS
    • Afferent - axons arriving towards the CNS (Sensory)
    • Efferent - axons leaving the CNS (Motor)
  13. Somatic Nervous System
    • Afferent and efferent nerves
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    • Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacral
  14. Dorsal root ganglion
    • sensory neuron cell bodies
  15. Ventral root
    • motor neuron axons
    • cell bodies in gray matter
  16. The face has spinal nerves. True or false?
  17. 12 Cranial Nerves
    • Olfactory
    • Optic
    • Oculomotor
    • Trochlear
    • Trigmenial
    • Abducens
    • Facial
    • Auditory
    • Glossopharyngeal
    • Vagus
    • Spinal accessory
    • Hypoglossal
  18. Bell's Palsy
    • Sudden weakness and paralysis on one side of face from injury to facial nerve
    • Cranial Nerve VII
  19. What two neurons control the internal environment?
    • Noradrenergic neurons
    • Cholinergic neurons
  20. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Activated during arousal and stressful periods
    • MobilizesĀ and uses stored and available energy
    • Prepares the body to "flight" or "flee"
    • Nerves exit CNS from Thoracic and Lumbar regions
    • Second synapse far (diffuse action)
    • Norepinephrine is released
  21. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • Activated during non stressful conditions or period of recovery
    • Allows organism to replenish energy
    • Prepares the body to "rest and restore"
    • Nerves exit CNS from Sacral regions of spinal cord or brain (vagus nerve)
    • Second synapse close (discrete action)
    • Acetylcholine is released
  22. Meninges
    • Dura matter - tough outer membrane
    • Arachnoid matter - web like membrane
    • Subarachnoid space (blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid)
    • Pia matter - delicate and is layer adjacent to CNS
  23. Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Clear fluid that cushions and protects CNS and provides nutrients
    • Manufactured by the Choroid Plexus
  24. Hydrocephalus
    Build up of CSF caused by blockage of the cerebral aqueduct or constriction of subarachnoid space
  25. Meningitis
    Inflammation of membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord

    • Viral
    • Less severe

    • Bacterial
    • Quite severeĀ 
    • Brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities
  26. Blood brain barrier
    • Endothelial cells that make up the blood prevent most chemicals from passing into the brain
    • Blood supply: provides glucose, amino acids, oxygen
    • Tighter junctions in cells is the blood brain barrier
  27. What surrounds the brain capilaries?
  28. L-DOPA, Dopamine, and Parkinson's and Blood Brain Barrier
    • Parkinson's is due to dying dopamine
    • Cannot give patients dopamine because it can't cross blood brain barrier
    • L-DOPA is given and can cross blood brain barrier
  29. Anterior
    toward the front
  30. Posterior
    toward the rear
  31. ventral
    toward the belly
  32. dorsal
    toward the back
  33. medial
    toward the midline
  34. lateral
    away from the midline
  35. superior
    above a structure
  36. inferior
    below a structure
  37. bilateral
    on both sides
  38. ipsilateral
    on the same side
  39. contralateral
    on opposite side