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What is the saying for the cranial nerves?
What does On Old Olympus Tower Tops A Finn and German Viewed Some Hops stand for?
- -On = Olfactory- I.
- -Old = Optic- II.
- -Olympus =Oculomotor- III.
- -Towering = Trochlear- IV.
- -Tops = Trigeminal- V.
- -A = Abducens- VI.
- -Finn = Facial- VII.
- -And = Acoustic- VIII.
- -German = Glossopharyngeal- IX.
- -Viewed = Vagus-X
- -Some = Spinal Accessory- XI.
- -Hops = Hypoglossal- XII.
What are the functions of the cranial nerves?
- I & II: smell and visual acuity
- III, IV & VI: extraocular movements *oculocephalic response * oculovestibular response
- V & VII: corneal reflex; facial movements
- VIII: sound articulation
- IX & X: cough, gag, swallow
- XI:neck and head movement
- XII: tongue movement
What part of the nervous system does autonomic fall under?
Peripheral nervous system and involuntary nervous system
What does the Thalamus do?
-Sensory pathways form synapses on way to cerebral cortex
What is Wernicke’s area for?
language comprehension (temporal)
What is the cerebellum responsible for?
- •Motor control
- •Sensory perception
What are the two motor neurons and where are they contained?
Ø Upper Motor Neurons: contained within CNS • Ex. Corticospinal, corticobulbar, and extrapyramidal tracts.
- Lower Motor Neurons: contained
- within PNS • Ex. Cranial nerves, spinal nerves
- of PNS
What are the types of reflexes?
- -Deep tendon reflexes (myotatic), e.g., knee jerk
- -Superficial, e.g., corneal reflex, abdominal reflex
- -Visceral, e.g., pupillary response to light
- -Pathologic (abnormal), e.g., Babinski’s reflex or extensor plantar reflex
What can people experience sometimes before they have a seizure?
Where is the location of where most breast cancer occurs?
What can black tarry stools mean?
- Old dried blood in the stool, mean a GI problem
- typically a higher problem
What is adduction?
Movement toward the midline
What is abduction?
Movement away from the midline
What is JVD rigidity indicative of?
Right heart failure
What kind of control is the anal sphincter under?
What doe the frontal lobe control?
Emotions and personality
What are common signs of osteoarthritis?
- unilateral, more common in joints with previous
- trauma, feel good in the morning but the more they use the joint the worse it feels
What are common signs of rheumatoid arthritis?
genetic, progressive, usually bilateral with pain in the morning and it gets better when you use the joint
What is Stereognosis?
the faculty of perceiving and understanding the form and nature of objects by the sense of touch
What is a dermatome?
the area of skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single posterior spinal root.
How do you grade muscle strength?
with resistance and grade it out of 5, symmetrical
What junction is visible at the base of the neck?
Where does the end of the scapula fall?
Between T7 and T8
What vertebrae is below the iliac crest?
What do tendons do?
They connect Bone to muscle
What do ligaments do?
Bone to bone
What do you never do with the musculoskeletal system?
Purcuss or auscultate
What structure is injured with a sprain?
What structure is injured with a strain?
Which structure has the most ligaments?
What are the three sections of the foot?
Forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot
What is the order of examining the musculoskeletal system?
Inspection, palpation, range of motion and muscle strength
What is Presbyobia?
Old age vision loss (farsightedness)
What is presbycusis?
Old age hearing loss
What is Gynecomastia?
during adolescence, it is common for breast tissue to temporarily enlarge
Are Supernumerary Nipples normal findings?
What is Tanner stage?
is a scale of physical development in children, adolescents and adults, based on pubic hair
What part of the finger do you use when examining the breast?
Fingerpads of the middle three fingers
What is a better screening for prostate cancer than PSA?
Digital rectal exam
If MD asks you to perform orthostatics on your patient, how would you expect the
blood pressure and pulse to change if they were to test positive?
blood pressure decreases, pulse increases
If a patient is concerned about possible kidney stones, what type of pain would
expect them to be experiencing?
Which highly vascular endocrine glad straddles
the trachea in the middle of the neck?
The patient presents with unilateral paralysis
of the left facial muscles when asked to smile. What would you suspect has taken place?
Which cranial nerves are responsible for eye movement?
III, IV, VI
PERRLA is an important part of examination for which aspect of the body?
Increased tactile fremitus would be evident in an individual who has which of the following conditions:
Inspiration is primarily facilitated by which of the following muscles?
Diaphragm and intercostals
What is S1 created by?
closing of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves
What is JVD indicative of?
Right sided heart failure
A patient presents with a distended abdomen.
Inspection yields a single curve and taut glistening skin, auscultation yields normal bowel sounds over the intestines, palpation is limited due increased intra-abdominal pressure, and percussion yields both tympany and dullness. The patient most likely has/is:
What is the best pulse location to test peripheral circulation?
Brachial, femoral and radial
Mechanisms that control the movement of venous blood?
Muscle contraction, valves and pressure from ventilation
Which test should be preformed a patient has senioneural hearing loss?
Weber and Rinne test