Unit 4 (Hemopoietic System) DIDN'T TEST

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Unit 4 (Hemopoietic System) DIDN'T TEST
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2013-04-24 22:27:21
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Unit 4: Hemopoietic System
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  1. name the components of the hemopoietic system:
    • blood
    • lymphatic tissue
    • bone marrow
    • spleen
  2. name the two components of the blood:
    • plasma
    • blood cells
  3. describe the make-up of plasma:
    • 90% water
    • 10% solutes:
    • •proteins
    • •glucose
    • •amino acids
    • •lipids
  4. name three types of blood cells:
    • erythrocytes
    • leukocytes
    • thrombocytes
  5. transport O2 and CO2 to and from various organs:
    • erythrocytes –”red blood cells”
    • (via the hemoglobin)
  6. hemoglobin level of less than 12g per 100ml of blood:
    anemia
  7. the total percent of red blood cells in blood volume:
    hematocrit
  8. specialized cells that form erythrocytes and are located in the myeloid tissue found within red bone marrow:
    hemocytoblasts
  9. consists of specialized cells in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow that phagocytose erythrocytes every 120 days:
    reticuloendothelial system
  10. what occurs during the reticuloendothelial system process?
    during this process the iron within the hemoglobin is released and bilirubin is formed
  11. erythrocytes may contain various _________ that determine blood type.
    antigens
  12. name the blood-typing antigens that erythrocytes might contain:
    • no antigens
    • A antigen
    • B antigen
    • both A and B antigens
  13. name the four blood types:
    • O (no antigens)
    • A
    • B
    • AB
  14. process in which antibodies are formed to fight against foreign red blood cells:
    aglutination
  15. a process that occurs when blood is mixed and the erythrocytes from the donor clump together in the serum of the recipient and antibodies are formed to fight against the foreign red blood cells:
    aglutination
  16. universal donor:
    universal recipient:
    • universal donor: type O blood
    • universal recipient: type AB blood
  17. a condition of the blood that was first discovered in the blood of the rhesus monkey:
    Rh factor
  18. describe the human Rh populations:
    • 85% of the population are Rh-positive
    • 15% of the population are Rh-negative
  19. when can the Rh factor be a complication during pregnancy?
    an Rh-positive father and an Rh-negative mother may affect pregnancy if the mother is not Rh-immunized
  20. name the two types of leukocytes:
    • granular
    • nongranular
  21. describe granular leukocytes:
    • contain cytoplasmic granules and irregular nuclei
    • formed within the red bone marrow and include basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils
  22. describe nongranular leukocytes:
    • do not contain cytoplasmic granules and possess regular nuclei
    • formed in lymphatic tissue of the spleen and include lymphocytes and monocytes
  23. able to move out of capillaries into tissue to attack and phagocytose foreign substances:
    leukocytes
  24. granular leukocytes live for:
    only about two weeks
  25. lymphocytes live for:
    years
  26. how many leukocytes does normal blood contain?
    5000–9000 per cubic milliliter
  27. responsible for blood coagulation and are formed in the myeloid tissue within the red bone marrow:
    thrombocytes or "platelets"
  28. thrombocytes live for:
    about ten days
  29. a part of the circulatory system that assures immunity through production of lymphocytes and antibodies, absorbs fat from the intestinal tract, and manufactures blood under certain circumstances:
    lymphatic system
  30. ovoid bodies found in groups along the lymph vessels and filter out particles and foreign materials from the blood:
    lymph nodes
  31. lymphatic vessels contain:
    lymph
  32. the part of the lymphatic system that produces lymphocytes and plasma cells, stores RBCs, and functions in phagocytosis:
    • spleen
    • (located in RUQ)
  33. name the two types of lymphocytes:
    • T lymphocytes
    • B lymphocytes
  34. the most important cell in the development of immunity:
    mature lymphocytes
  35. ____________ work together with ____________ to ingest foreign substances and process the specific foreign antigens:
    • T and B lymphocytes
    • macrophages
  36. an immunoglobulin produced by plasma cells:
    antibody
  37. name plasma cells that produce antibodies:
    • IgG
    • IgM
    • IgA
    • IgD
    • IgE
  38. the systemic response of these antibodies can have an undesirable negative effect on:
    • tissue grafts
    • organ transplants
  39. exposure to x-rays or gamma rays can have a harmful effect on the:
    • blood marrow
    • lymphoid tissue
  40. it takes a whole-body dose of about ________ to cause a detectable change in the blood cells:
    50-75 rads
  41. the most radiosensitive blood cells are the:
    • 1. lymphocytes
    • 2. leukocytes and thrombocytes
  42. name three uses of radiography in hemopoietic disorders:
    • skeletal radiography
    • chest radiography
    • lymphography
  43. name how skeletal radiography can be used in hemopoietic disorders:
    • multiple myeloma
    • leukemia (some types)
  44. name how chest radiography can be used in hemopoietic disorders:
    • lymphatic changes
    • infections associated with AIDS
  45. name how lymphography can be used in hemopoietic disorders:
    for the location and extent of neoplastic diseases of the lymphatic system
  46. Both the ______________ system and ___________ systems carry oxygen and nutrients to the tissues.
    • blood vascular
    • lymphatic
    • they also collect and transport carbon dioxide and other waste products of metabolism from the tissues to the organs of excretion
  47. name the organs of excretion:
    • skin
    • lungs
    • liver
    • kidneys
    • A. axillary nodes
    • B. common iliac nodes
    • C. deep inguinal nodes
    • D. cervical nodes
    • E. left subclavian vein
    • F. thoracic duct
    • G. lumbar nodes
    • H. superficial inguinal nodes
  48. concerning the lymphatic system, MRI is useful in imaging:
    • bone marrow
    • diseases that affect the marrow
  49. a virus that prevents the body response to the presence of diseases:
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  50. AIDS is is caused by:
    human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  51. signs and symptoms associated with AIDS:
    • pneumocystis carinii (common)
    • kaposi's sarcoma (common)
    • generalized lymphadenopathy
    • malaise
    • fever
    • weight loss
    • CNS disorders: apathym, memory loss, inability to concentrate, dementia
  52. the AIDS virus may ____________ in individuals for years and has a mortality rate of _________.
    • lie dormant
    • 90%
  53. HIV most frequently affects:
    • homosexuals
    • bisexuals
    • intravenous drug users
  54. ____________________ is one of the most common life-threatening infections associated with AIDS, and it is often in combination with a _________________.
    • pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
    • cytomegalovirus
  55. drug of choice for both treatment and prophylaxis of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP):
    trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
  56. ________________ is the most common malignancy in AIDS, is present in ___________ of cases, and may affect the connective tissue in various sites within the body.
    • kaposi's sarcoma
    • approximately 25-30%
  57. kaposi's sarcoma most often affects the:
    • skin
    • lymph nodes
    • GI system
  58. 20% of patients with kaposi’s sarcoma demonstrate:
    pulmonary involvement
  59. name three radiographic signs of kaposi's sarcoma:
    • hilar adenopathy
    • nodular pulmonary infiltrates
    • pleural effusion
  60. a neoplastic disease of the plasma cells that results in cell proliferation, is usually confined to the bone marrow and forms discrete tumors that weaken the affected bone, and is mostly seen in pts over 50:
    multiple myeloma
  61. multiple myeloma most frequently affects the:
    • pelvis
    • spine
    • ribs
    • skull
  62. signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma:
    • progressive bone pain
    • anemia
    • fatigue
    • bleeding disorder
    • renal insufficiency or failure
    • hypercalcemia
    • recurrent bacterial infections
  63. a condition associated with neoplastic disease of leukocytes that results in an overproduction of white blood cells which can interfere with normal blood cell production and may lead to anemia, bleeding, and infection:
    leukemia
  64. the cause of leukemia is:
    unknown, but exposure to irradiation and certain chemicals predispose individuals to developing leukemia
  65. name types of leukemia:
    • acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
    • chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
    • chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML)
    • acute myelocytic leuklemia (AML)
    • acute monoblastic leukemia (AMOL)
  66. leukemia accounts for ________ of all cancer deaths in children under age _______.
    • 33%
    • 15
  67. all leukemias require the destruction of
    cells by either:
    • radiation
    • anti-leukemic drug therapy
  68. though radiography plays a limited role in the diagnosis and treatment of leukemia, name a few:
    • CT and ultrasound are of value in assessing lymphatic diseases
    • lymphography can aid in the staging of the disease
  69. a neoplastic disease affecting the lymphoid tissue and is a type of lymphoma that is generally retoperitoneal with less mesenteric involvement:
    hodgkin's disease
  70. a type of lymphoma that often involves the mesentery:
    non-hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)
  71. lymphomas are divided into two types which are:
    • hodgkin's disease
    • non-hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)
  72. describe hodgkin's disease's origin and who it affects:
    • unknown etiology
    • individuals between the ages of 20 and 40
    • men slightly more than women
  73. symptoms of hodgkin's disease:
    • general malaise
    • fever
    • anorexia
    • enlarged lymph nodes
  74. how is a hodgkin's disease diagnosis made?
    • by biopsy of the lymphatic tissue
    • reed-sternberg cells differentiate hodgkin’s disease from other types of lymphatic diseases
  75. describe stage I hodgkin's disease:
    • denotes one anatomic node location
    • has a 5-year survival rate of 90%
  76. describe stage IV hodgkin's disease:
    • denotes extranodal spread to the bone marrow, the lungs, or the liver
    • has a 5-year survival rate of 20%
  77. how is hodgkin's disease treated, and what is the overall prognosis?
    • treated with a combination of radiation and chemotherapy
    • has a 5 year survival rate of approximately 42%

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