Ch 16 Endocrine System

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Ch 16 Endocrine System
2013-03-12 08:47:51

A&P 2 Endocrine review
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  1. What two systems work together to maintain homeostasis?
    endocrine and nervous systems
  2. What is the name of the system made up of these two systems?
    Neuroendocrine system
  3. What are the 3 functions of the neuroendocrine system?
    • 1. Communication
    • 2. Integration
    • 3. Control
  4. What does the endocrine system do?
    Secretes hormones to specific target cells
  5. Endocrine glands are:
    Ductless glands
  6. Ductless glands dump their product:
    directly into blood stream
  7. Hormones                                                   than those of neurotransmitters.
    work slowly and last longer
  8. Hormones are released as:
    inactive but can be activated when needed
  9. Hormones can be classified by                 and               .
    general function and chemical structure
  10. Which hormones target other endocrine glands and stimulate their growth and secretion?
    Tropic hormones
  11. Which hormones target reproductive tissues?
    Sex hormones
  12. Which hormones stimulate anabolism in target cells?
    Anabolic hormones
  13. What are the 2 types of hormones classified by their chemical structures?
    • Steroid hormones
    • Nonsteroid hormones
  14. What is true about steroid hormones?
    • synthesized from cholesterol
    • Lipid-soluble and can easily pass thru phospholipid membranes of target cells
  15. Cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone are all examples of:
    steroid hormones
  16.                 hormones do not enter the cell directly.
  17. Insulin and parathyroid hormones are:
    protein hormones (non-steroid)
  18. Non-steroid hormones are synthesized primarily from:
    amino acids
  19. Amino acid derivative hormones:
    are each derived from a single amino acid molecule
  20. epinephrine and norepinephrine are:
    amine hormones
  21. Hormones signal a cell by:
    binding to the target cell's specific receptors in a "lock and key" mechanism
  22. What is synergism in relation to hormones?
    Combinations of hormones acting together to have a greater effect
  23. What is permissiveness in relation to hormones?
    when one hormone permits, or enables, a second hormone to have its full effect
  24. What is antagonism in relation to hormones?
    • when one hormone produces the opposite effects of another hormone.
    • Used for fine tuning
    • Ex: insulin and glucagon
  25. What happens to unused hormones?
    It is quickly excreted thru kidneys or broken down.
  26. Steroid hormones are:
    lipid soluble
  27. The amount of steroid hormones present determines:
    • the magnitude of a target cell's response.
    • The more hormones the faster and stronger it'll work
  28. The second messenger mechanism is also known as the:
    fixed-membrane-receptor model
  29. Explain how the second messenger mechanism works.
    • Non-steroid hormone acts as first messenger and delivers its chemical message to receptors
    • The message is then passed by G protein into cell where it triggers cellular changes
  30. How is hormonal secretion controlled?
    Negative feedback loop called endocrine reflexes
  31. What is up-regulation?
    increased number of receptors being filled which increase sensitivity
  32. What is down-regulation?
    decreased number of receptors being filled which decreases sensitivity
  33. What are Prostaglandins (PGs)?
    Unique group of lipid hormones called tissue hormones because the secretion is produced in tissue and stays localized
  34. PGs tend to:
    integrate activities of neighboring cells
  35. What were the first 3 prostaglandins identified?
    Prostaglandins A, E, and F
  36. What gland is known as the master endocrine gland?
    Pituitary gland
  37. What is the function of the pituitary gland?
    • Sends hormones to all places in the body
    • Produces more hormones than all other glands
  38. What 2 glands make up the pituitary gland?
    • Adenohypophysis (Anterior gland)
    • Neurohypophysis (Posterior gland)
  39. What are the 3 stain types of adenohypophysis?
    • (C.A.B)
    • Chromophobes- do not stain
    • Acidophils- stain with acid stains
    • Basophils- stain with basic stains
  40. What are the 5 functional types of adenohypophysis?
    • (S.C.T.L.G)
    • Somatotrophs- secrete GH (growth hormone)
    • Corticotrophs- secretes ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    • Thyrotrophs- secretes TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
    • Lactotrophs- secretes PRL (prolactic)
    • Gonadotrophs- secrete LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
  41. What must be done if a patient's TSH level is elevated?
    Meds must be increased because thyroid is not working
  42. What are 4 characteristics of growth hormones (GH)?
    • AKA somatotropin (STH)
    • Promotes bone growth
    • Stimulates fat metabolism
    • Increases blood glucose levels
  43. What is prolactin's (PRL) claim to fame?
    promotes development of the breasts to anticipate milk secretion during pregnancy
  44. ACTH is responsible for:
    homeostasis and fluid balance
  45. What are considered the mind and body links?
    • Pituitary and hypothalmus
    • Hypothalmus translates nerve impulses into hormone secretions by pituitary
  46. Increased stress has what effect on immunity?
  47. Adrenal cortex produces                     which increases water retention and ultimately BP.
  48. Aldosterone is a type of:
  49. Main glucocorticoids:
    • maintain blood sugar & BP and norepinephrine & epinephrine productions.
    • Affects every cell in the body
  50. Adrenal medulla contains:
    neurosecretory tissue- composed of neurons specialized to secrete their products into the blood.
  51. What is the only organ composed of both endocrine and exocrine tissues?
  52. Alpha cells secrete:
  53. Beta cells secrete:
  54. What accounts for 75% of all pancreatic islet cells?
    Beta cells
  55. Delta cells secrete:
  56. What is the most common use for somatostatin?
    cancer that causes fluid imbalance
  57. What does glucagon do?
    • increase blood sugar levels
    • stimulates gluconeogenesis in liver cells
  58. What does insulin do?
    lowers blood sugar levels
  59. Name 2 characteristics of testosterone?
    • produced by the testes
    • regulated by gonadotropin levels in blood
  60. What are the primary sex organs in the female?
  61. Ovaries produce:
    estrogen and progesterone
  62. What organ serves as a temporary endocrine gland?
  63. What is true of the thymus?
    • Larger in children
    • produces thymosin which stimulates development of T cells
  64. Cells in the mucosal lining of the GI tract:
    produce both endocrine and exocrine secretions
  65. What is grehlin?
    • hormone secreted by endocrine cells in gastric mucosa
    • stimulates hypothalamus to boost appetite
    • slows metabolism and fat burning (may contribute to obesity)
  66. 2 characteristics of the heart:
    • Secondary endocrine role
    • produce atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
  67. ANH's primary effect is to oppose:
    • increases in blood volume/ pressure.
    • Also an antagonist to ADH and aldosterone