PSY 241 Lecture 8

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  1. Lobotomies
    • Remove or destroy parts of the brain
    • make psychotic patients more manageable
    • remove portions of frontal lobe
  2. Lesions
    chemical lesions or lesions due to disease
  3. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    • record electrical activity of the brain
    • measure electrical activity within the surface of the brain (cortex)
  4. MRI
    • Uses magnetic fields to create a more detailed view of the brain
    • Water is polarized making molecules vibrate
  5. CT scans
    • 3D images of the brain
    • Uses x-ray to generate an image
    • Reveal tumors
  6. fMRI
    examine function by localizing blood flow to different areas of the brain (blood = energy, oxygen, glucose)
  7. PET scans
    • use radioactive chemicals to track brain activity
    • The brighter the color, the more activity

    • Alzheimer's brain
    • Less activity
    • Does not take as much glucose
  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation
    stimulate specific parts of the brain
  9. 4 Major Regions of CNS and 5 Subregions of the Brain
    • Forebrain
    • Telencephalon
    • Diencephalon
    • Midbrain
    • Mesencephalon
    • Hindbrain
    • Metencephalon
    • Myelencephalon
    • Spinal cord
  10. Hindbrain: Myelencephalon
    • Medulla oblongata
    • Pyramid and Olive regions
    • Controls basic life fuctions (respiration, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, blood pressure)
    • Afferent and efferent fibers pass through
  11. Hindbrain: Metencephalon
    • Pons
    • Bridge for many sensory axons passing from one side to the other side of the brain
    • Axons control sleep, arousal, and dreaming pass through
    • Raphe system - cell bodies for serotonin releasing neurons

    • Cerebellum
    • Connected via Pons
    • Associated with development and coordination of movement, balance, somatosensory
  12. Midbrain: Mesencephalon
    Several small nuclei

    • Tectum (roof) - relays visual and auditory information, eye and ear orientation movements
    • Superior colliculi - relays visual info
    • Inferior colliculi - relays auditory info

    • Tegmentum (floor covering)
    • Red nucleus - controls basic body movements
    • Substantia nigria - cell bodies for dopamine releasing neurons. Involved in voluntary movements
    • Ventral tegmental area - cell bodies for dopamine releasing neurons. Involved in experiencing reward
  13. What part of the brain is the brainstem?
    • midbrain plus hindbrain
    • minus the cerebellum
    • Image Upload 1
  14. Locus coerelus
    • cell bodies for norepinephrine releasing neurons 
    • involved in arousal
  15. Forebrain: Diencephalon
    • Epithalamus
    • Habenula - olfactory functions
    • Pineal gland - produces the hormone melatonin

    • Thalamus - major relay station for sensory and motor signals
    • Many nuclei (gray matter) - processing of signals
    • Medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) - relays auditory information
    • Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) - relays visual information

    • Hypothalamus
    • Secretes hormones that are involved in need states 
    • Fighting, Fleeing, Food, Fucking
    • Master Gland
    • Regulates hormone release by the pituitary and controls ANS
  16. Thalamus
    • Relay station to outer layer of the brain (Cortex)
    • Descending pathways (motor info)
    • Ascending pathways (sensory info)
  17. Forebrain: Telencephalon
    • Limbic System
    • Main Structures: amygdala, cingulate, gyrus, and hippocampus
    • Regulates emotions - anger, happiness, and fear (amygdala) and memory of emotional experiences
    • Involved in storage and retrieval of memories (hippocampus)

    • Basal Ganglia
    • Initiation of voluntary control of movements, maintaining muscle tone, and posture (target of Substantia Nigra)
    • Main structures: caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus
    • *Corpus striatum - caudate nucleus and putamen

    • Cerebral Cortex
    • Convoluted outer layer of the forebrain
    • AKA neocortex (most recently evolved cortex)
  18. Somatosensory Cortex
    • Received info about touch, pain, pressure, temperature  and body position
    • Neurons organized 
    • Face and hands overrepresented
  19. Motor Cortex
    • Cortex controls body movements
    • Sends axon down to the spinal cord to control motor efferent nerves
  20. Cerebral Cortex - layers of cells
    • Layers or stellate cells (short or no axon) and pyramidal cells (long axon)
    • Motor cortex has larger V and VI (pyramidal)
    • Sensory cortex has larger IV (stellate)
  21. Cerebral Cortex Divisions
    • Frontal
    • Parietal
    • Temporal
    • Occipital
    • Sulcus - small groove
    • Fissure - large groove
    • Gyrus - raised portion of brain (plural gyri)
    • Image Upload 2
  22. Occipital Lobe
    analysis of visual info
  23. Parietal lobe
    • anterior portion (somatosensory cortex) 
    • posterior portion involves in spatial perception
  24. Temporal lobe
    • includes primary auditory cortex, visual area, and language centers
    • (Wernicke's area - impairment of language comprehension - jargon talk)
  25. Frontal lobe
    • posterior portion is motor cortex
    • includes language center (broca's area - motor movements for speech production impaired)
    • anterior portion (prefrontal area): complex cognitive functions, planning, decision making, impulsivity
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PSY 241 Lecture 8
2013-03-12 06:10:14
Brain psychobiology zavala

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