PSY 241 Lecture 9

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PSY 241 Lecture 9
2013-03-12 03:21:01
endocrine system psychobiology zavala

endocrine system
Show Answers:

  1. Endocrine glands release hormones _______ the body.
  2. Exocrine glands use ducts to secrete fluid _______ the body, such as tears and sweat.
  3. Endocrine
    In endocrine communication, a hormone is released into the bloodstream to selectively act on target tissues
  4. Synaptic
    Chemical release and diffusion across a synapse
  5. Pheremone
    Chemicals released outside the body to affect other individuals of the same species
  6. Allomone
    Chemicals released outside the body to affect individuals of another species are allomones
  7. Chemical Structure of Hormones
    • Peptide hormone, or peptide hormone - a string of amino acids
    • Amine hormones - modified version of single amino acid, called monoaminne hormone
    • Steroid hormones - derived from cholesterol and made 4 rings of carbon atoms
  8. Hormones exert influences:
    • 1. Protein and amine hormones bind to specific receptors on the surface of a cell and cause release of a chemical signal - a second messenger - in the cell
    • 2. Steroid hormones pass through the cell membrane and bind to receptors inside the cell
  9. Steroid-receptor complex
    binds to specific regions of DNA and controls expression of specific genes
  10. testosterone
    sperm production, muscle development, beard growth, sexual behavior, aggression
  11. Pituitary gland
    releases important hormones and regulates other endocrine glands
  12. pituitary stalk
    connects pituitary to hypothalamus
  13. neuroendocrine cells
    specialized neurons that release hormones into the blood
  14. Posterior pituitary releases what two hormones into the bloodstream?
    • oxytocin
    • vasopressin
  15. Where are oxytocin and vasopressin produced?
    hypothalamus in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
  16. Oxytocin
    involved in repreoductive and parenting behavior, uterine contractions, and the milk letdown reflex
  17. Arginine vasopressin (AVP)
    promotes water conservation and increases blood pressure
  18. Anterior Pituitary
    • Contains endocrine cells that synthesize and secrete different hormones
    • Tropic hormones - pituitary hormones affect secretion by other endocrine glands
    • Releasing hormones - used by hypothalamus to control release of tropic hormones (corticotrophin releasing factor CRF)
    • Axons of neuroendocrine cells that produce releasing hormones converge on the median eminence
    • Hypothalamic neurons synthesize releasing hormones that are secreted into local blood vessels and travel to anterior pituitary
    • Secretion rate of releasing hormones governs the rate of tropic hormone release into general circulation
  19. Vision
    • What we see (perceive) based entirely on the activity of the brain
    • Our reality of the external world is subject to interpretation
  20. Neurons code stimuli by _________
    the rate of firing or number of neurons firing
  21. Our brain is __________ the info being __________ and _____________
    Our brain is analyzing the info being detected and makes a decision.
  22. Sensory receptors
    specialized receptors able to detect a variety of physical (light, sound waves, pressure) and chemical stimuli.
  23. Hair cells detect ____________ coming through the ______
    sound waves; ear
  24. Ruffini cells detect __________ in the _______.
    low frequency vibrations; skin
  25. Photoreceptors detect ________
    light waves
  26. Sensory transduction
    Process by which sensory stimuli (physical energy) is converted (transduced) into a neural impulse (an action potential)
  27. What part of the brain received the visual information first?