PSY 241 Lecture 9
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Endocrine glands release hormones _______ the body.
Exocrine glands use ducts to secrete fluid _______ the body, such as tears and sweat.
In endocrine communication, a hormone is released into the bloodstream to selectively act on target tissues
Chemical release and diffusion across a synapse
Chemicals released outside the body to affect other individuals of the same species
Chemicals released outside the body to affect individuals of another species are allomones
Chemical Structure of Hormones
- Peptide hormone, or peptide hormone - a string of amino acids
- Amine hormones - modified version of single amino acid, called monoaminne hormone
- Steroid hormones - derived from cholesterol and made 4 rings of carbon atoms
Hormones exert influences:
- 1. Protein and amine hormones bind to specific receptors on the surface of a cell and cause release of a chemical signal - a second messenger - in the cell
- 2. Steroid hormones pass through the cell membrane and bind to receptors inside the cell
binds to specific regions of DNA and controls expression of specific genes
sperm production, muscle development, beard growth, sexual behavior, aggression
releases important hormones and regulates other endocrine glands
connects pituitary to hypothalamus
specialized neurons that release hormones into the blood
Posterior pituitary releases what two hormones into the bloodstream?
Where are oxytocin and vasopressin produced?
hypothalamus in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
involved in repreoductive and parenting behavior, uterine contractions, and the milk letdown reflex
Arginine vasopressin (AVP)
promotes water conservation and increases blood pressure
- Contains endocrine cells that synthesize and secrete different hormones
- Tropic hormones - pituitary hormones affect secretion by other endocrine glands
- Releasing hormones - used by hypothalamus to control release of tropic hormones (corticotrophin releasing factor CRF)
- Axons of neuroendocrine cells that produce releasing hormones converge on the median eminence
- Hypothalamic neurons synthesize releasing hormones that are secreted into local blood vessels and travel to anterior pituitary
- Secretion rate of releasing hormones governs the rate of tropic hormone release into general circulation
- What we see (perceive) based entirely on the activity of the brain
- Our reality of the external world is subject to interpretation
Neurons code stimuli by _________
the rate of firing or number of neurons firing
Our brain is __________ the info being __________ and _____________
Our brain is analyzing the info being detected and makes a decision.
specialized receptors able to detect a variety of physical (light, sound waves, pressure) and chemical stimuli.
Hair cells detect ____________ coming through the ______
sound waves; ear
Ruffini cells detect __________ in the _______.
low frequency vibrations; skin
Photoreceptors detect ________
Process by which sensory stimuli (physical energy) is converted (transduced) into a neural impulse (an action potential)
What part of the brain received the visual information first?
What would you like to do?
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