BIO specific immunity

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elevatedsound7
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206658
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BIO specific immunity
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2013-03-14 09:10:34
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BIO specific immunity
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BIO specific immunity
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  1. what are the innate defenses
    • first line = physical barriers, chemical barriers, genetic barriers
    • 2nd line = inflammatory response, interferons, phagocytosis, complement
  2. what is third line of defense
    • acquired or specific
    • naturally = active infection, passive maternal antibodies
    • artificially acquired = vaccination, immune serum
    • antibodies, T cells, accessory cells and cytokines
  3. opsonization =
    coating of a bacterium with antibody to make it more susceptible to phagocytosis
  4. compliment activates?
    • inflammation
    • cytolysis
    • opsonization
  5. Complement factors C5b+C6+C7+C8 make up
    a membrane attack complex that results in cytolysis
  6. are complement factors named in the order in which they function?
    NO
  7. In the classical pathway C1 complement becomes activated when
    it binds to an antigen antibody complex
  8. antigen =
    structure on pathogen or foreign material. An antigen stimulates the immune system
  9. Epitiope =
    • Molecular structure of antigen - recognized by specific antibody
    • antigens usually contain numerous epitopes
  10. Antibody
    immunoglobulin structure that recognizes epitope, is protective and activates immune system
  11. Humoral immunity includes
    • antibodies
    • plasma B-cells
    • Memory B-cells
  12. cellular immunity is modulated by
    • macrophages
    • natural killer cells
    • t-cells
  13. macrophages do what
    bridge the gap between the non-specific and specific immune responses
  14. natural killer cells do what
    initiate the earliest reponses to infection
  15. t-cells do what
    recognize intracellular antigens and destroy the host cells that express them
  16. What is MHC and what does i do?
    • major-histocompatibility-complex
    • internal system that causes recognition of self, your own antigens
  17. B cells do what
    attach to antigens and present them to the Killer cells who decide whether it i s self or non self
  18. T - helper cells assist
    B plasma and memory cells to produces antibodies
  19. cytotoxic T cells are
    T cells that go out and attack small antigens (haptens) by releasing cytokins and enzymes, that destroy antigenic materials/cells. they often hurt self/normal tissue or cells in the area
  20. hapten is
    • a small separable non-protein part of certain antigen molecules which carries the chemical group (needs a carrier) that combines with the anitbody
    • what cytotoxic T cells go after
  21. cytokines are
    • proteins that are messengers that communicate between cells
    • they are produced by T-cells in reponse to an infection
  22. t cells are created where
    mature where
    • in bone marrow
    • thymus
  23. B - cells are created where
    mature where
    • bone marrow
    • mature in bone marrow
  24. B cells are activated by
    cytokines = immune hormones secreted by T-cells
  25. cytokine stimulaton leads to
    • plasma b-cell formation
    • memory b-cells
  26. disulfide bonds are
    what holds together the four peptide chains of antibodies
  27. 5 different antibody structures are
    • IgG - monomer
    • IgA - Dimer or monomer
    • IgM - Pentamer
    • IgD - monomer
    • IgE - monomer
  28. most prevalent antibody structure =
    IgG monomer with 2 binding sites
  29. two antibodies that fix complement
    IgG and IgM
  30. only antibody that crosses placental border =
    IgG
  31. Ig stands for
    Immunoglobin
  32. IgG located where
    in the blood lymph and intestines
  33. known functions of IgG
    • enhances phagocytosis
    • neutralizes toxins and viruses
    • protects fetus and newborn
  34. IgM structure =
    how many binding sites
    • pentamer
    • 10
  35. Igm location =
    • bloo
    • lymph
    • B cell surface (monomer)
  36. knonw functons of IgM
    • first antibodies produced during a primary infection
    • effective against microbes and agglutinatiing antigens
  37. IgA structure =
    • Dimer or monomer
    • 4 binding sites for a dimer
    • 2 binding sites for a monomer
  38. IgA location
    • secretions (tears, saliva, intestine, milk)
    • blood
    • lymph
  39. known functions of IgA =
    • protection of mucosal surfaces
    • provides immunity to infant digestive tract (breast feeding)
  40. IgD structure and function =
    • monomer
    • unknown in serum function
    • on Bcell surface , initiate immune response
  41. IgE structure and function
    • monomer
    • allergic reactions, possibly lysis of worms
  42. functions of antibodies include
    • tag bacterial cells
    • opsonization - engulfed easier by macrophage
    • neutralization - block binding sites of viruses
    • agglutinaton - clump bacterial cells together
    • complement fixation
    • precipitation - antibodies aggregate antigen molecules
  43. 4 types of acquired immunity =
    • natural active
    • natural passive
    • artificial active
    • artificial passive
  44. natural active immunity -
    direct exposure due to infection
  45. natural passive immunity =
    • mother IgG crosses the placenta in utero
    • IgA present in the colostrum
  46. Artificial Active immunity -
    • injecting antigens
    • IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY
  47. artificial passive immunity =
    • injecting immune serum from virus patients
    • antivenom
    • rhogam shots
    • NO IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY

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