ESP Ecology.txt

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ESP Ecology.txt
2013-03-12 10:06:21
ES Ecology Quiz

ES&P Ecology Quiz
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  1. Ecology:
    Study of the home; Study of the interaction between The biotic and abiotic factors of ecosystems
  2. Coastal salt marshes:
    Unique wetland ecosystems that form the interface between the terrestrial aquatic and marine environments
  3. The hydrological influences of wetlands:
    Daily tidal fluxes, seasonal freshwater impulses, and urban/agricultural runoff
  4. Compare the salt marshes of the East Coast without of the West Coast:
    The west coast has mountains leaving many to the areas of topography to support coastal wetlands
  5. Climate for salt water marshes:
    Mediterranean type; long, warm, dry summers, and short, wet winters; droughts common, annual rainfall low
  6. Loss of Southern California's coastal saltmarsh:
    Less than 25% still viable
  7. Coastal strand habitat:
    Doings, sandy beaches, and bluffs offer a harsh environment for the a few plant species there(due to loose sand, save amenity, fog, isolation, wind, and put traffic). Bluffs and dunes often adjacent to salt marshes.
  8. Coastal sage scrub habitat:
    Diverse plant community dominating hillsides below 1500 feet on the coastal side of mountain ranges. Order salt marshes along the coast. Dominant shrub is California sagebrush. True Sages Common
  9. Riparian Habitat:
    Vegetation along streams and floodplains. Limited along channelized rivers and streams
  10. Saltmarsh plain:
    Dense Halophytic plant community that supports a wide variety of animals. Dominant plant species shift with topography. Least terns use the creeks to catch trapped fish
  11. Saltmarsh panne:
    Unvegetated areas found in the upper intertidal regions. High soil salinities during the dry season. Supports a unique community of highly adapted burrowing insects (Beetles). Inundated at high tides, Bringing in algae for the Beetles
  12. Saltmarsh – brackish marsh:
    Influenced by tides, run off, or see pages. Located between salt marshes and Rivereen wetlands. Characterized by plants found in freshwater marshes
  13. Transition zones:
    A rare sub habitat where Upland and saltmarsh communities overlap
  14. Saltmarsh – ruderal marsh:
    Significantly degraded due to low tidal flushing. May lead to hyper salinated soil or invasion of non-Hydro phytic vegetation
  15. Zoning:
    • Lower Marsh zone: wet saline inundated
    • Upper marsh zone: dry hypersaline rarely inundated
  16. Plant stressors due to flooding:
    Hypoxia/anoxia; Low 02 availability causes reduction in aerobic respiration and therefore a reduction in ATP; Soil phytotoxin accumulation-mn,fe,s
  17. Aerenchyma:
    Tissues that move oxygen from atmosphere through to roots
  18. Pressurized flow:
    • Creation of gas pressure gradients that move oxygen more efficiently
    • Lenticel's:
    • Pores in woody structures that allow for gas exchange
  19. Animal adaptations to flooding:
    Air-Filled boroughs, air Bubbles
  20. Drying in salt marshes causes what:
    Oxidation of metal sulfides creating acidification, toxic levels of Metals; salinity
  21. Plant adaptations to drying:
    Exclusion (selective uptake); excretion; dilution by succulents (water in cytoplasm)
  22. Some plant species:
    • Spartina foliosa; Cressa truxilensis
    • Algal mats
  23. Some fish species:
    California halibut; Topsmelt
  24. Some bird species:
    • Caspian terns, ring – billed gull
    • Diver: brown pelican
    • Herons and egrets
    • Migratory: Canada geese
  25. Invertebrates:
    • Gastropods: Cloudy bubble snails
    • Bivalves: Little neck clams
    • Crustations: Fiddler crab
    • Annelid worms:
    • Arachnids:
    • Insects:
  26. Mammals:
    Mice squirrels coyotes rabbits
  27. Reptiles:
    Gopher snakes, Western fence lizard
  28. Species of special concern:
    • I disdains population of an animal native to California that satisfies at least some of the following criteria: is listed as federally, but not state, threatened or endangered; has not been formally listed by the state; risk of population decline
    • Examples: southern tar plant, Pacific green turtle,
    • Tiger beetles, wondering Schipper (butterfly), least turns, California brown pelican, snowy clover, Savannah sparrow,