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- Act of collecting data in a school setting.
- The act of collecting data, either informally or formally, on an individual's capability to perform an act or knowledge of content.
- Data collected guides decisions on instruction and planning.
- Is a single measurement tool for student knowledge.
- Evaluated and scored based on criteria/content provided.
- Can be administered at anytime (for example unit or chapter test).
- Analyzing and interpreting data
- The product of assessment
- Evaluation is the act of analyzing and judging assessment data.
- Mertler - Assessments that overcome the limitations of pencil-and-paper testing
- Focus on application of knowledge and skills as well as higher levels of real-world application.
- Techniques - Informal assessments, Performance-based assessments, Portfolio.
- Text - Any type of assessment that deviates from the traditional model.
- Teachers can assess students in a variety of ways.
- (Instrument used to obtain standards based performance and progress for students with severe disabilities in lieu of standardized testing.)
- Mertler -Subcategory of alternative assessments
- Focuses on real-world applications
- Text - Tasks that are real and meaningful to the learner in today's world.
- Is part of instruction and learning
- Useful to learners and teachers
- A knowledge or proficiency test on content that is learned or taught.
- A determination of a student's knowledge of a particular subject or content area.
- Ability to work at something (math, science)
- Measurable skills
- Can be norm or criterion-referenced
- Measure internal intelligence
- Inherent in individual
- Norm referenced
- Standardized(A series of tests that measure ones mental ability or academic aptitude (verbal, spatial). Some believe intelligence does not change - native intelligence.)
- Teacher notes of observations
- Can be just a word or two
- To witness learning as it happens
- Systematically record what they see and hear in class
- Link together info and insights
- Actual student work.
- Tangible pieces of evidence of student learning.
- Often for portfolio
- Collection of student work to serve a variety of purposes.
- Demonstrate student learning and progress.
- Selected by student or teacher.
- Type of assessment.
Benchmarks - Benchmark Test
- Benchmarks are standards to which something can be measured against.
- Assessments used to measure students learning against the standards.
- Student performance is compared to a preestablished set of performance standards
- More fair than Norm referenced
- Used by most classroom teachers
- Possible for all students to earn top grade
- Include - Performance-based criteria (rubric-type)and Percentage-based criteria (based on total points)
Norm-referenced, Norming group
- Grades are assigned based on comparison of performance to that of other students in class. (relative grading, curving the class)
- Basis of comparison is performance of all other students
- Not all students can receive the highest possible grades
- Meaning of letter grades is not always clear
- Create highly competitive classrooms
Percentile rank vs. Percentage
- Precentile is a ranking score that represents a student's ranking in comparison to peers. If a student is in the 95th precentile he scored higher than 95% of their peers.
- Percentage is the calculation of the number of correct answers over the total number possible. Most commonly used in classroom assessment.
- Grade Equivalent is a descriptive ranking score of normative data that is understandable by parents.
- It is reported in grade levels and tenths of months. For example 6.2 is equal to grade 6 and 2/10 of the year.
Normal Curve Equivalent
- NCE is an interval score used in educational assessments.
- Raw scores are converted into a scale score that allows comparison across states by NAEP.
- Uses a curve, breaks it into 9 equal sections
- Norm referenced
- Ranking score
- Stanines 1-3 below average, 4-6 average, and 7-9 above average.
A qualitative assessment tool used with standardized testing. The distribution of scores results in a bell shaped curve.
Raw scores, scale scores
- Raw scores are the number of correct scores on a given assessment and can only be compared between other scores from the same assessment.
- Scale scores are raw scores converted to a standard interval scale that allows data from mulitple assessment types to be compared.
- Real world activity.
- A single, teacher created event that will assess the student performing a complex task that applies knowledge and skills learned. For example, a driver's test or writing a research paper.
Pre- and post-assessment
- Before instruction - after instruction
- Pre-assessment gathers data on the skill set students currently possess before starting a new unit or subject. Drives instruction.
- Post-assessment gathers data on what a student learned from said unit or subject. Both assessment types are used to guide teacher decisions on planning and instruction.
- Descriptive; observation - not on a scale
- (informal observations, oral questioning, anecdotal records, essay - informal and unstructured)
- Observation of what's going on
- Subjective, require judgement
- Based on scale you're measuring
- Comes out as a number (this is the assessment but not evaluation because we don't know goal)
- Only one correct answer
- Consistency of measurements when the testing procedure is repeated on a population of individuals or groups.
- Close grouping on target
- Applicable to, appropriate for subject
- How you use the results more important than the assessment (Mertler)
- Validity is the most fundamental consideration when developing and evaluating tests and other assessments.
- Can tell validity with Content, Criterion and Construct.
- Content-related evidence most imp. to tell validity
- Refers to scores, not test.
- Grouped in middle of target
Any material slanted toward a particular person or group resulting in unfair practice.
- Tool for assessing that uses a grid to define components of a task and shows gradations of the quality of each of the components
- Can be given to student with assignment instructions so they know goals
- Helps teachers define their teaching goals
Any individual or group that has invested interest in the school and education.
- Type of assessment
- Doesn't require decision by scorer.
- Only one correct answer
- Selected response
- Type of assessment
- Depends on opinion of scorer
- Can have more than one correct answer
- Constructed response
The belief that social concerns serve a better criterion for the advancement of students from one grade to next rather than academic concerns.
- More prevalent in the early grades
- The act of keeping a student from promoting to the next grade because foundational skills have not been met.
Any form of intervention at a young age that will counteract or eliminate risk factors that may impact academic success.
- Used to plan instruction. Informs about what the student does and doesn't know and what needs to be addressed.
- Typically from informal assessments
- To determine adjustments to instruction
- Happen during instruction
- Used at the end of a unit to assess student learning and the effectiveness of instruction or program.
- Uses more formal assessments, planned in advance
- Typically used to assign grades to student performance
- Can be used as final measure of overall effectiveness of instruction
- Individual Education Plan
- Required by IDEA outlining how a child with special needs will be taught and treated in school. Includes goals and objectives, services, placement, evaluation procedures. Must be signed by parents and school personnel.
- Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
- A standardized test administered by Oregon to measure student proficiency with state standards.
- National Assessment of Education Progress
- Utilizes embedded test questions in state tests to compare state academic achievement.
High stakes testing
Using standardized tests to bring about major consequences or major decisions that impact others such as high school exit exams or teacher salaries.
NCLB (ESEA reathorization act of 2001)
- No Child Left Behind
- No Child Left Behind is the reauthorization of ESEA that governs the federal government's role in public education.
- Has goals schools must reach to receive federal money
- Annual Yearly Progress
- Adequate yearly progress is a requirement of NCLB . It consists of goals that demonstrate progress toward accountability in school acheivement.
- Blooms taxonomy
- There are six major categories, starting from the simplest behavior (recalling facts) to the most complex (Evaluation).
- The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas.
- Affective domain includes feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes