Conservation Biology Exam.txt

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Conservation Biology Exam.txt
2013-03-12 12:45:08
Conservation Biology Exam

Conservation Biology Exam
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  1. What is conservation biology? Why is it unique?
    The combination of basic and applied research to document biological diversity, identify threats from human activities, and develop methods to protect and restore its diversity, it is multi/interdisciplinary and guided by a set of principles. It's associated with environmentalism, but differs from it by being based in biological research
  2. Conservation principles:
    Diversity should be preserved, untimely extinction should be avoided, ecological complexity should be maintained, evolution should continue, biological diversity has intrinsic value
  3. Preservationist ethic
    John muir: Intrinsic values superior to material gain obtained by exploitation
  4. Utilitarian/Resource conservation ethic
    Pinchot:  Divide into Anthrop and natural resources.  Sustainable development for The greatest good for the greatest number of people for the longest period of time.
  5. Land ethic:
    Leopold: To maintain the health of natural ecosystems and ecological processes. Human use to be compatible with or even enhanced biological diversity
  6. Extrinsic (Instrumental) vs. Intrinsic Values
    • Extrinsic: anthropocentric, utilitarian, measurable (Goods, services, information, beauty/pleasure)
    • Intrinsic: existence value, in and of itself
  7. Philosophies:
    Egoism, humanism, sectarianism, biocentrism, land ethics
  8. Egoism:
    Only I have intrinsic value
  9. Humanism:
    Only humans have intrinsic value
  10. Sentientism:
    Conscious organisms have intrinsic value
  11. Biocentrisism:
    Only living organisms have intrinsic value
  12. Ecocentrism:
    ecosystems are the only things that have intrinsic value
  13. Species:
    Groups of individuals that are morphologically, biogeochemically, physiologically distinct from one another, OR cannot breed with individuals of other groups
  14. Genetic species concept:
    Different DNA structures
  15. Phylogenetic species concept:
    Different parents on the phylogenetic tree
  16. Morphological – taxonomy:
    Distinct physical characteristics, can be modified by environment
  17. Behavioral species concept:
    Behave in ways that make breeding impossible or unlikely
  18. Biological:
    Cannot breed with individuals of other groups
  19. Community:
    All populations living and interacting with in a particular geographic area
  20. Ecosystem:
    the living organisms in the community together with their abiotic environment
  21. Biodiversity:
    The complete range of species and biological communities, as well as the genetic variation within species and all ecosystem processes
  22. Species richness:
    The number of species found in a community.
  23. Alpha diversity:
    Number of species found in a community or designated area
  24. Gamma diversity:
      number and species in a large region or contents;
  25. Beta Diversity:
    rate of change of species composition along a environmental or geographical gradient; Sometimes calculated as the Gamma diversity of the region divided by the average alpha Diversity
  26. A population
    Individuals who mate and produce offspring
  27. Fitness:
    Growth, survival, and reproduction rates
  28. Allopatric speciation:
    Cost from geographic isolation; evolution from lack of contact
  29. Peripatric speciation:
    New species formed from a small population isolated at the edge of a larger population; Like Island versus mainland populations
  30. Parapatric speciation:
    New species formed from a continuously distributed population; Perhaps from nonrandom mating and unequal gene flow, As individuals prefer to meet with those in their own region
  31. Sympatric speciation:
    New species somehow evolved in the same geographic range; Perhaps due to reduced gene flow with individuals exploiting another niche; Apple maggot flies and Hawthorne flies examples
  32. How do we assess biodiversity?
    We can use numbers relating to genes, phylogenetics, species, behaviors, or functional groups. We also can measure equitability – evenness, dominance, or distinctiveness.
  33. Dominance:
    How many more of one or a few species there are relative to the others in the area
  34. Evenness:
    How equally distributed the numbers of individuals there are among species
  35. Some species rich environments:
    Coral reefs, tropical rain forest, tropical lakes, Tropical dry forest
  36. Species poor environments:
    Polar regions, deserts, open ocean (Book says deep-sea also appears to be rich in species though not adequately explored)
  37. Why are there so many species in the tropics?
    High solar energy, continuous area, geological long-term stability, temperature, precipitation, Competition, specialization
  38. Environmental economics:
    The study of choice as applied to environmental decisions; the study of economic value of natural systems and the true cost of destruction
  39. The philosophy of environmental economics:
    Costs and benefits of free exchange are born by the participants – assumption;
  40. When do markets fail?
    Public goods, externalities, intrinsic value
  41. Cost-benefit analysis:
    Comparison of costs versus benefits to find the most efficient outcome, however doesn't take into account equity/fairness
  42. Impact analysis:
    Measures who gains and loses; measures distribution of costs and benefits; may include assessment of the burden of a regulation
  43. Stakeholder analysis:
    Identifies conflicting uses of assets; based on property rights
  44. Discount rate:
    Calculation of the value that the natural resources will have in the future; Evaluating the value of the resource now versus the value of the resource in the future (higher discount rates = lower current value)
  45. Perverse subsidies:
    Subsidizing of industries involved in environmentally damaging activities
  46. NPV:
    Net Present Value; the discounted value of the net benefits of the use of a resource.
  47. Techniques for existence valuation:
    Travel cost, Hedonic pricing, Choice experiments, Contingent valuation, transfer values
  48. The Valuation of Biodiversity:
    Split into Non-Use (Intrinsic/Existence) and Use Values (Instrumental/Utilitarian)

    Non-Use-->Protecting the BD, maintaining culture of locality, continuing ecology

    Use split into direct, indirect (ecosystem service), and option (future)

    Direct split into consumptive and productive
  49. Direct threats to the continuation of species:
    Fragmentation/degradation; invasive species; overexploitation; pollution; global climate change
  50. Underlying threats to the continuation of species:
    Urbanization; overpopulation; overconsumption; low incentives to conserve; lack of enforcement
  51. Causes of endangerment/extinction:
    Natural declines, destroyed habitat, invaders, Pollution, over- exploitation
  52. Things that probably don't cause natural extinctions:
    Epidemics, evolution of new competitors
  53. Biggest California threats for extinction:
    Habitat to agriculture, urbanization
  54. Inclusion on IUCN red list:
    • 40% of amphibians, 13% birds
    • International Union for the Conservation of Nature (and Natural Resources)
  55. Endemic:
    Occurring there and nowhere else
  56. Allele:
    A variant form of a gene giving rise to a particular trait in an organism
  57. Endangered species:
    A species that has a high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future; A species within the respective category in the IUCN system
  58. Effective population size:
    • The number of breeding individuals within a population
    • Ne; affected by population fluctuations, reproductive output, and sex ratio
    • affects genetic drift
  59. Tragedy of the commons:
    The degradation of a shared/public resource resulting from unregulated use
  60. Keystone species:
    Species with an unusually high impact on the functioning of an ecosystem; has far-reaching implications for an ecosystem, Greater then indicated by the number of individuals or species biomass
  61. Externality:
    Hidden costs or benefits not directly involved in a market exchange
  62. Flagship species:
    As species acting as a poster boy for conservation efforts
  63. Surrogate Species:
    Species or groups of species that provide an estimate of the biodiversity in an area or that can be used to guide protection efforts when data on the whole community is unavailable
  64. Ecologically functional:
    Describing the population of the species sufficiently large enough to have an impact on other species in an ecosystem
  65. Different variations of extinct:
    Extinct, extinct in the wild, locally extinct, economically extinct, ecologically extinct, pseudo-extinct (evolved into a new species, Lazarus)
  66. What species are vulnerable to extinctions?
    Those with: low fecundity, narrow distributions, small populations, low dispersal, requiring heterogenous landscape, requiring specific habitat, those that have coevolved
  67. Edge effects:
    negative impacts adjacent to habitat boundaries
  68. What species types are vulnerable on a Rabinowitz rarity scale?
    Small population, geographically restricted, in a specific habitat-Or low habitat tolerance
  69. What causes natural extinctions?
    • Natural catastrophes, climate change, mountain building, sea level change, Continental drift
    • (Probably not epidemics or evolution of competitors)
  70. Direct (human) threats to the continuation of species:
    Fragmentation/degradation; invasive species; overexploitation; pollution; global climate change
  71. Underlying (human) threats to the continuation of species:
    Urbanization; overpopulation; overconsumption; low incentives to conserve; lack of enforcement
  72. Deterministic threat:
    • Result unsystematic forces causing population decline; future state can be extrapolated with current data
    • (Only when lambda is less than one)
  73. Stochastic threat:
    • Result of random fluctuations, only probability distribution for future can be specified, fairly uncertain
    • (Even when lambda is greater than one; small populations are more vulnerable)
  74. Types of stochastic effects:
    Genetic, demographic (random births), environmental, catastrophic
  75. Reasons for overexploitation:
    Overconsumption, lack of conservation, economic growth, increased human population, technology
  76. Invasive:
    Non-native and causing economic, environmental, or human harm
  77. Three dimensions of impacts of invaders:
    Range, abundance, per capita or per biomass effect
  78. Impacts of exotic species:
    Genetics – hybridize nation, gene flow; disease/parasitism; interspecific interactions – predation/herbivory/competition; Ecosystem functions – food webs,  nutrient cycling
  79. R – selected:
     Hi fecundity, small body size, early maturity, short generation, Wide offspring dispersal (Insects, frogs)
  80. K selected:
    Large body size, long life, fewer offspring (humans)
  81. Invader characteristics:
    R selected, or inability to shift between r and K, Competitive ability
  82. MVP:
    • Minimal viable population necessary to ensure the survival of a
    • species; Smallest isolated population having 99% chance of remaining extent for 1000 yrs. Used as a goal, when data/time/money is more limited
  83. MVA:
    Minimum dynamic area necessary for maintaining the MVP; Studied from home-range size
  84. Fecundity:
    Average number of offspring per individual of particular age at a time
  85. Survival rate:
    Percent chance of survival in a unit of time
  86. Survivorship:
    Proportion of individuals still alive at a certain age (beginning of age)
  87. PVA:
    • Population Viability Analysis; Predicts population dynamics through time, producing quantitative estimate of extinction risk
    • Should be used when species is believed to be declining-a proactive tool. Requires lots of data
  88. Leslie Matrix model:
    • Sum of first row numbers times respective second column numbers. And so on.
    • Give numbers of individuals alive at that age.
    • First matrix:
    • First row is fecundity, subsequent rows are age-specific survival
  89. Leftkovitch:
    Alternative to Leslie, stage-specific survival. Good for when age difficult to tell or is not the closely related thing to fecundity (as opposed to size), also for when animals revisit stages or do not progress
  90. Umbrella species:
    A species of which the protection results in the protection of other species (because they require a large area)
  91. Hotspots:
    Targets for protection because of their high biodiversity, endemism, and significant threat of imminent extinctions.
  92. Methods for new populations
    Reintroduction, Translocation, Augmentation, Introduction
  93. Priorities for BD protection:
    Distinctiveness (rare), Vulnerability, Utility
  94. Approaches for where to protect:
    • • Forms of RARITY (Rabinowitz
    • • Biodiversity indicator approaches (HOT SPOTS)
    • • Centers of biodiversity approaches
    • • Community and ecosystem approaches
    • • Wilderness areas