Anthro Final Pt 2

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happydoodle
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206780
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Anthro Final Pt 2
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2013-05-14 02:51:27
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anthropology
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  1. What are The Bipedal Adaptation?
    Suggests most dramatic changes occur in the pelvis
  2. The earliest hominins are all from...
    Africa date from 6+ mya
  3. What is the structure of Bipedalism?
    stabilizes weight transmission from lower back to hip joint
  4. Hominin bipedalism is both...
    habitual and obligate
  5. (Hominin bipedalism) habitual
    in that bipedalism is standard and most efficient form of locomotion
  6. (Hominin bipedalism) obligate
    in that hominines cannot locomote efficiently in any other way
  7. The foramen magnum is...
    repositioned farther underneath the skull, so the head is more or less balanced on the spine
  8. The spine has two distinctive curves that keep the trunk (and weight) centered above the pelvis
    a backward (thoracic) one and a forward (lumbar) one
  9. Basin-shaped pelvis supports...
    internal organs
  10. the ossa coxae are _____, stabilizing ______
    shorter and broader, weight transmission
  11. The femur is angled ___, keeping the legs more directly ___
    inward, directly under the body
  12. Hominin foot (OH 8) from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
    • -suggesting a well-adapted bipedal gait
    • -considerable flexibility in the ankle suggesting climbing
  13. Pre-australopiths
    • •Large browridges
    • •Upper canine, reduced and worn from top
    • •Intermediate between ape and hominin
  14. Orrorin
    • •Central Kenya
    • •dental remains and complete lower limb
    • •bipedal locomotion
  15. Ardipithecus
    • •Middle Awash in the Afar Triangle, Ethiopia
    • •Well-adapted female biped
    • •Difficulty in running, but considerable grasping
  16. Australopiths; two related genera? What are they?
    Australopithecus and Paranthropus
  17. Anamensis
    Earliest australopiths, feature large canine and a sectorial lower first premolar
  18. Why is A. afarensis so Crucial?
    • -Represents evolutionary bridge linking major patterns of early hominin evolution
    • -Represented by many well-preserved fossils, well studied
    • -Potentially ancestor of all later hominins
  19. Paranthropus
    • •Broad cheekbones, large teeth related to powerful chewing
    • •Diet emphasizing rough vegetable foods, possibly some meat
  20. Australopithecus africanus (South Africa)
    • •big-toothed
    • •bipedal
  21. Homo habilis at Olduvai
    •“handy man” based on suggested toolmaking capabilities
  22. The oldest specimens of H. erectus have been found in ____, they’re dated to approximately ___
    East Africa, 1.8 mya
  23. East African hominins...
    • -used the same stone tools as their ancestors
    • -lived in lakeshores, riversides, forests, and grasslands
    • -scavenged and ate at least some meat
  24. Dmanisi 1.8-1.7 mya
    • •First possible emigrants out of Africa
    • •Similar to H. erectus
    • •From H. erectus
  25. Newest Evidence from Dmanisi
    • -Body proportions similar to H. erectus and H. sapiens
    • -suggesting the first to leave Africa were small-bodied, early form of H erectus
  26. “Dragon bones” used as...
    medicine and aphrodisiacs were ancient bones
  27. The Pleistocene
    • “The Ice Age” marked by advances and retreats of massive continental glaciations
    • -climate, flora and fauna shifts impacted hominins
  28. Glaciations
    • •Most dramatic effects in Europe & N Asia
    • •Climate fluctuates in S Asia and Africa
    • •Changing food resources affect hominins in Africa and block migration routes
  29. Interglacial Periods
    Interglacials in northern latitudes are associated with warmer temperatures, while in southern latitudes the climate becomes wetter
  30. Middle Pleistocene Culture
    • -Acheulean tool tradition, replaced near the end with Levallois tool tradition (nodule)
    • -Cave and open-air living sites
    • -Exploited wide variety of food sources
    • -Exploited marine life
  31. Neandertal, La Chapelle-aux-Saints
    •Flint tools and broken animal bones around body
  32. Culture of Neandertals
    Mousterian tool industry, although the industry is associated with not just Neandertals(found in context with modern humans)
  33. Settlements of Neandertals
    • •People of the Mousterian culture lived in open sites, caves, and rock shelters.
    • •Windbreaks of poles and skin were placed at the cave opening for protection against severe weather
    • •Fire was used
  34. Subsistence of Neandertals
    • •No long distance weapons
    • •Exploited marine resources, gathering shellfish and hunting seals and dolphins
  35. Speechand Symbolic Behavior of Neandertals
    • •Neandertals were not limited by neurological differences
    • •Probably used pigment and wore jewelry of perforated and drilled shells with pigments applied
  36. Burials (Neandertals)
    • •Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead as early as 90,000 years ago at Tabun
    • •Grave goods placed in burials, e.g. stone tools, animal bones, stone slabs, flowers
  37. Middle Pleistocene Hominins
    • 1. Very diverse, broadly dispersed through time and space
    • 2. Clearly transitional between H. erectus and H.sapiens
  38. Regional continuity model
    • •Multiregional evolution
    • •Local populations in Europe, Asia, and Africa continued indigenous evolution
  39. Through gene flow and natural selectionlocal populations would not have...
    evolved totally independently from one another
  40. Multiregional models do not tell us about...
    the origins of modern humans; about the dispersal of modern H. sapiens.
  41. Explain Replacement Models
    Modern humans first evolved in Africa and later dispersed, replacing hominins living in other regions

    • 1. Complete replacement
    • 2. Partial Repalcement
    • 3. Assimilation
  42. The disappearance of archaic humans was due to...
    hybridization and replacement
  43. Initial dispersal of H.sapiens sapiens from South Africa was influenced by...
    environmental conditions
  44. Complete Replacement Model
    Modern populations arose in Africa<200,000 ya,migrated, replacing populations in Europe and Asia
  45. Partial Replacement Model
    • •Postulates the earliest dates for African modern Homo sapiens at over 100,000 yrs
    • •Initial dispersal of H. sapiens sapiens from South Africa was influenced by environmental conditions
  46. Assimilation
    More interbreeding took place in some regions
  47. NAGPRA
    Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
  48. Feminist Archaeology
    research approach that explores why women’s contribution have been written out of archaeological record and suggests new approaches to human past that include these contributions
  49. New Views in Archaeology
    • -Feminist Archaeology
    • -Underwater/Marine Archaeology
    • -Historical Archaeology
  50. Mesolithic
    • -end of glacial period; changes in human habitats
    • -shift to hunting and gathering plants & aquatic resources
    • -increased reliance on seafood and plants
  51. Mesolithic Tools
    -Ground stone tools (axes and adzes) needed for new technologies in postglacial world
  52. Archaic Cultures
    • -used for Mesolithic cultures in Americas
    • -change to food production took place independently & in various regions
    • -People; more sedentary, domesticated plants and animals
  53. Teosinte
    • -domestication of Plants
    • -Domestication transformed Teosinte into something highly desirable
  54. Vegeculture
    • -Root crop farming
    • -involves growing of many diff species together in single field
    • -more stable than seed crop cultivation
  55. Jericho
    • -early farming in Jordan River Valley
    • -village cemetery reflects sedentary life
  56. Neolithic Tools
    • -Stone ground and polished for tools
    • -permanent houses built & weaving of textiles
  57. Diseases Acquired From Domesticated Animals
    • -Cattle give measles, tuberculosis, smallpox
    • -Influenza, pertussis from pigs, dogs, & ducks
  58. Agricultural innovation
    • -development of new farming methods that increased crop yields
    • -led to changes: increased population size
  59. Diversification of Labor
    • -result of population growth in cities
    • -Some could provide food for others
    • -development of new technologies
    • -increased contact with foreign ppl through trade
  60. Social Stratification
    • -culture change characteristic of cities & states
    • -individuals ranked according to work they did or position of families
  61. Grave Goods
    Items symbolically placed in grave for deceased person’s use in afterlife
  62. Ecological theories
    -mutual relations of actions of ancient people and their environment
  63. Three Ecological Theories
    • 1. civilization as result of construction of irrigation systems
    • 2. trade; to get scarce resources
    • 3. States develop where populations are limited by barriers
  64. Action Theory
    -Acknowledges relationship of society to environment in shaping social & cultural behavior
  65. Wittfogel
    • *one cause of state formation to regulate hydraulic agricultural economies
    • •increases production
    • •sustain towns & cities
  66. Long-Distance Trade Routes
    -States emerged at strategic locations in regional trade networks
  67. Circumscription
    • •environments; small islands, river plains, & valleys
    • •Social circumscription exists when societies block expansion or access to resources
  68. Uruk Period
    • –Irrigation allowed Ubaid communities to spread along Euphrates River
    • –First writing appears to keep accounts
  69. Cuneiform
    wedge-shaped writing, using styles on clay
  70. Bronze Age Mesopotamian States
    • –Secular authority replaced temple rule
    • –Well-defined class structure with nobles, commoners, and slaves
  71. Problems in Early Cities
    • -Poor sanitation with spreading disease
    • -Dense population, class systems, & strong centralized government created stress
    • -Warfare was common
  72. Agroecology
    constructed niches favorable for agriculture vary over time and space
  73. Farming
    • -modification of environments of plants & animals--> increase productivity & usefulness
    • -modified/constructed niche becomes only environment where domesticated species can survive
  74. Sedentism
    process of increasingly permanent habitation of one place; development of village life
  75. Niche Construction
    When organism actively alters environment or when it actively moves into different environment

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