Chapter 8

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Anonymous
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206781
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Chapter 8
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2013-03-13 23:25:22
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Nervous System
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vocabulary words and word parts
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  1. Neuron that carries information from the sensory receptors to the central nervous system.
    afferent neuron
  2. Middle layer of meninges.
    arachnoid
  3. A type of neuroglia that maintains nutrient and chemical levels in neurons.
    astrocyte
  4. Part of the peripheral nervous system that carries impulses from the central nervous system to glands, smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and various membranes.
    autonomic nervous system
  5. Part of a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body.
    axon
  6. Large masses of gray matter within the cerebrum.
    basal ganglia
  7. Body organ responsible for controlling the body's functions and interactions with outside stimuli.
    brain
  8. One of the four major divisions of the brain; division that controls certain heart, lung, and visual functions.
    brainstem
  9. Part of a nerve cell that has branches or fibers that reach out to send or receive impulses.
    cell body
  10. The brain and spinal cord.
    central nervous system (CNS)
  11. One of the four major divisions of the brain; division that coordinates musculoskeletal movement.
    cerebellum
  12. Outer portion of the cerebrum.
    cerebral cortex
  13. Watery fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord.
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  14. One of the four major divisions of the brain; division involved with emotions, memory, conscious thought, moral behavior, sensory interpretations, and certain bodily movement.
    cerebrum
  15. Ability to transmit a signal.
    conductivity
  16. Folds in the cerebral cortex; gyri.
    convolutions
  17. Bridge of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.
    corpus callosum
  18. Any of 12 pairs of nerves that carry impulses to and from the brain.
    cranial nerves
  19. Bony structure that the brain sits in.
    cranium
  20. A thin branching extension of a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses toward the cell body.
    dendrite
  21. One of the four major structures of the brain; it is the deep portion of the brain and contains the thalamus.
    diencephalon
  22. Outermost layer of meninges.
    dura mater
  23. Neuron that carries information to the muscles and glands from the central nervous system.
    efferent (motor) neuron
  24. Area between the pia mater and the bones of the spinal cord.
    epidural space
  25. One of the parts of the diencephalon; serves as a sensory relay station.
    epithalamus
  26. Ability to respond to stimuli.
    excitability
  27. One of many indentations of the cerebrum; sulcus.
    fissure
  28. One of the four parts of each hemisphere of the cerebrum.
    frontal lobe
  29. Also convolution
    gyrus (pl. gyri)
  30. One of the parts of the diencephalon; serves as a sensory relay station.
    hypothalamus
  31. Neuron that carries and processes sensory information.
    interneuron
  32. Part of the brain stem that regulates heart and lung functions, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing.
    medulla oblongota
  33. Three layers of membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord.
    meninges (sing., meninx)
  34. A type of neuroglia that removes debris.
    microglia
  35. Part of the brainstem involved with visual reflexes.
    midbrain
  36. Fatty tissue that covers axons.
    myelin sheath
  37. Bundle of neurons that bear electrical messages to the organs and muscles of the body.
    nerve
  38. Basic cell of the nervous system having three parts: cell body, dendrite, and axon; neuron.
    nerve cell
  39. Released energy that is received or transmitted by tissue or organs and that usually provokes a response.
    nerve impulse
  40. Membranous covering that protects the myelin sheath.
    neurilemma
  41. Cell of the nervous system that does not transmit impulses.
    neuroglia, neuroglial cell
  42. Basic cell of the nervous system having three parts; nerve cell.
    neuron
  43. Various substances located in tiny sacs at the end of the axon.
    neurotransmitters
  44. One of the four parts of each hemisphere of the cerebrum.
    occipital lobe
  45. A type of neuroglia that produces myelin and helps to support neurons.
    oligodendroglia
  46. Part of the autonomis nervous system that operates when the body in in a normal state.
    parasympathetic nervous system
  47. One of the four parts of each hemisphere of the cerebrum.
    parietal lobe
  48. Innermost layer of meninges.
    pia mater
  49. Part of the brainstem that controls certain respiratory functions.
    pons
  50. Tissue or organ that receives nerve impulses.
    receptor
  51. Part of the peripheral nervous system that receives and processes sensory input from various parts of the body.
    somatic nervous system
  52. Ropelike tissue that sits inside the vertebral column and from which spinal nerves extend.
    spinal cord
  53. Any of 31 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the spinal cord and the torso and extremities.
    spinal nerves
  54. Anything that arouses a response.
    stimulus (pl. stimuli)
  55. Area between the dura mater and the pia mater across which the arachnoid runs.
    subdural space
  56. Also fissure.
    sulcus (pl. sulci)
  57. Part of the autonomic nervous system that operates when the body in under stress.
    sympathetic nervous system
  58. Space over which nerve impulses jump from one neuron to another.
    synapse
  59. One of the four parts of each hemisphere of the cerebrum.
    temporal lobe
  60. Group of fibers at the end of an axon that passes the impulses leaving the neuron to the next neuron.
    terminal end fibers
  61. One of the four parts of the diencephalon; serves as a sensory relay station.
    thalamus
  62. One of the four parts of the diencephalon; serves as a sensory relay station.
    ventral thalamus
  63. Cavity in the brain for cerebrospinal fluid.
    ventricle
  64. cerebell(o)
    cerebellum
  65. cerebr(o), cerebri
    cerebrum
  66. crani(o)
    cranium
  67. encephal(o)
    brain
  68. gangli(o)
    ganglion
  69. gli(o)
    neuroglia
  70. mening(o), meningi(o)
    meninges
  71. myel(o)
    bone marrow, spinal cord
  72. neur(o), neuri
    nerve
  73. spin(o)
    spine
  74. thalam(o)
    thalamus
  75. vag(o)
    vagus nerve
  76. ventricul(o)
    ventricle
  77. Reflex on the plantar surface of the foot.
    Babinski's reflex
  78. X-ray of the brain's blood vessels after a dye is injected.
    cerebral angiogram
  79. Radiographic imaging that produces cross-sectional images.
    computerized (axial) tomography (CT or CAT) scan
  80. Record of the electrical impulses of the brain.
    electroencephalogram (EEG)
  81. Record of the radiographic study of the ventricles of the brain.
    encephalogram

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