Medic 14 A&P Chapter 6

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Dthiery237
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Medic 14 A&P Chapter 6
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2013-03-20 10:38:36
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Medic 14
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Chapter 6
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  1. Chapter Objectives
    • Describe the functions of the skeletal system.
    • Compare the structures and functions of compact and spongy bone.
    • Discuss bone growth and development, and account for variations in the internal structure of specific bones.
    • Describe the remodeling and repair of the skeleton, and discuss homeostatic mechanisms responsible for regulating mineral deposition and turnover.
    • Name the components and functions of the axial and appendicular skeletons.
    • Identify the bones of the skull.
    • Discuss the differences in structure and function of the various vertebrae.
    • Relate the structural differences between the pectoral and pelvic girdles to their various functional roles.
    • Distinguish among different types of joints and link structural features to joint functions.
    • Describe the dynamic movements of the skeleton and the structure of representative articulations.
    • Explain the relationship between joint structure and mobility, using specific examples.
    • Discuss the functional relationships between the skeletal system and other body systems.
  2. Ab-
    From;abduction
  3. Acetabulum
    a vinegar cup: acetabulum of the hip joint
  4. Ad-
    toward, to: adduction
  5. Amphi-
    on both sides; amphiarthrosis
  6. Arthros
    joint; amphiarthrosis
  7. blast
    Precursor; osteoblast
  8. circum-
    around:circumduction
  9. clast
    break: osteoclast
  10. Clavius
    Clavicle;clavicle
  11. concha
    shell:middle concha
  12. corona
    crown;coronoid fossa
  13. cranio-
    skull:cranium
  14. Cribrum
    Sieve: cribriform plate
  15. dens
    tooth:dens
  16. dia-
    through: diathrosis
  17. duco
    to lead:adduction
  18. e-
    out:eversion
  19. gennan
    To produce: esteogenesis
  20. gompgosis
    a bolting together: gomphosis
  21. in-
    into:inversion
  22. Infra-
    beneath; infraspinous fossa
  23. lacrimae
    tears: lacrimal bones
  24. lamella
    thin plate:lamellae of bone
  25. malleolus
    little hammer: medial malleolus
  26. meniscus
    cresent: menisci
  27. osteon
    bone:osteocytes
  28. penia
    lacking:osteopenia
  29. planta
    sole: plantar
  30. porosus
    Porous; esteoporosis
  31. septum
    wall:nasal septum
  32. stylos
    pillar; styloid pillar
  33. supra-
    above:supraspinous fossa
  34. sutra
    a sewing together: suture
  35. Teres
    cyndrical: ligamentum teres
  36. trabecula
    wall: trabeculae in spongy bone
  37. trochlea
    pully: trachlea
  38. Vertere
    to turn:inversion
  39. Skeletal System includes
    • bones of the skeleton
    • cartilages
    • joints
    • ligaments
    • and other connective tissue that stabilize or connect them.
  40. Skeletal System Has 5 primary functions
    • Support
    • Storage
    • Blood cell production
    • Protection
    • Leverage
  41. Bone or (osseous tissue) is a supporting connective tissue that
    Contains specialized cells and a matric that consists of extracellular protein fibers and a gorund substance.
  42. Calcium phosphate accounts for...
    • 2/3 of the weight of bone.
    • Remaining third is contained os osteocytes, collagen fibers and other cell types that only make up 2% of the mass of a bone.
  43. 4 general shapes of bones
    • Long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
  44. Long bones
    • Are longer then they are wide
    • Humerous and femur are examples
  45. Short bones
    dimensions are roughly equal in size
  46. Flat Bones
    are thin and relatively broad
  47. Irregular bones
    Have complex shapes that do not fit easily into any other category
  48. A long bone from top to bottom is:
    Proximal epiphysis , Diaphysis, distal epiphysis
  49. Diaphysis
    Central shaft, that covers a central marrow cavity that contains bone marrow, which is a loose connective tissue
  50. Epiphyses
    The expanded portions at each end of a long bone, are covered by articular cartilages.
  51. Each epiphysis of a long bone articulates with an adjacent bone at a joint
    Growth of an immature  long bone occurs at the juctions between the epiphyses and diaphysis
  52. Two types of visible bone tisue
    • Compact bone (dense bone) relatively solid
    • Spongy bone (cancellous bone) resembles a network of bony rods or struts separated by spaces.
  53. Periosteum
    Covers the outer surface of the bone
  54. The fibers of tendons and ligaments intermingle with those of the periosteum, and attach skeletal muscles to bones and one bone to another
  55. Cellular Endosteum
    • lines the marrow cavity and other inner surfaces 
    • Is active during bone growth and whenever repair or modeling is underway
  56. Osteocytes
    bone cells contained in small pockets called lacunae.
  57. Lacunae is found
    between narrow sheets of calcified matric that are known as lamellae
  58. Canaliculi
    Small channels that radiate through the matrix and interconnect lacunae and link them to nearby blood vessels.
  59. Haversian system, Osteon
    basic functional unit of compact bone, osteocytes are arranged in concentric layers around a central canal or Haversian canal that contains one or more blood vessels.
  60. Perforating canals
    provide passageways for the linking of blood vessels of the central canals with those of the periosteum and marrow cavity
  61. Spongy bone
    • Has a different lamellar arrangement and no osteons. 
    • the lamellae froms rods or plates call trabeculae
  62. Branching of the thin trabeculae create an open network.  canaliculi that radiate from the lacunae of spongy bone at the exposed surfaces of the trabeculae , where nutrients and wastes diffuse between marrow and osteocyts
  63. A layer of compact bone covers surfaces everywhere except
    inside joint capsules where articular cartilages protect  opposing surfaces
  64. Cells in bone
    • Osteocytes
    • Osteoclasts
    • Osteoblasts
  65. Osteocytes
    Mature bone cells. Maintain  normal bone structure by recycling calcium salts in the bony matrix around themselves and by assisting in repairs
  66. Osteoclasts
    Giant cells with 50 or more nuclei. acids and enzymes secredted by osteoclasts dissolve the bony matrix and release stored minerals through osteolysis or resorption.
  67. Osteolysis or resoption
    helps regulate calcium and phosphate  concentrations  in body fluids
  68. Osteoblasts
    • Are the cells responsible for the production of new bone.
    • Osteoblasts produce new bone matrix and promote deposition of calcium salts in the organic matrix.
  69. Osteogenesis
    production of new bone
  70. Ossification
    Process of replacing other tissues with bone
  71. Calcification
    depostion of calcium salts occurs during ossification , but it can also occur in tissues other than bone
  72. Endochondrial ossificaiton
    bone replaces existing cartilage
  73. Intramembranous ossification
    begins when osteoblasts differentiate within embryonic or fetal fibrous connective tissue.
  74. the place where Ossification first occurs
    an ossification center
  75. Steps of Endochondrral ossificaiton
    1
    Chonodrocytes at the center of the growing cartilage model enlarge and then die as the matrix calcifies
  76. Steps of Endochondrral ossificaiton
    2
    Newly dervrived osteoblasts cover the shaft if the cartilage in a thin layer of bone
  77. Steps of Endochondrral ossificaiton
    3
    Blood vessels penetrate the cartilate. New osteoblasts from a primary ossification center.
  78. Steps of Endochondrral ossificaiton
    4
    The bone of the shaft thickens and the cartilage near each epiphysis is replaced by shafts of bone.
  79. Steps of Endochondrral ossificaiton
    5
    Blood vessels invade the epiphyses and osteoblasts form secondary centers of ossification
  80. Appositional growth
    While the bone elongates, its diameter enlarges as its outer surface
  81. Stopping ages for epipheseal cartilages in arms and legs
    • 18 women
    • 20 men
  82. Vitamen D3 is converted to what in the kidneys after processed in the liver
    Calcitriol which is a hormone that stumulates the absorption of calcium and phosphate ions in the digestive tract
  83. Rickets
    is a conditon marked by softening and bending of bones that occurs in growing children, due to a dificiency of Vitamen D3
  84. Scurvy
    • Dificiency in vitamen C
    • Reduction of osteoblast production that leads to weak and bittle bones
  85. Remodeling
    18% of protein and mineral comonents are removed and replaced each year through this process
  86. Calcium
    • Is the most abundant mineral in the body
    • typical body caonts 1-2 kg of calcium
    • 99% in the skeleton
  87. Calcium concentration in body fluids
    • Increase- by 30%muscles become relatively unresponsive
    • Decrease-by 35% muscles become so excitable that convulsions may occur
    • Decrease by 50- Death
  88. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitriol
    • work together to elevate calcium levels in body fluids
    • they are opposed bu calcitonin which depresses calcium levels in body fluids
  89. Steps in repair of a fracture
    1
    Immediately after the fracture,extensive bleeding occurs. over a period of several hours, a large blood clor or fracture hematoma develops
  90. Steps in repair of a fracture
    2
    An internal callus forms a network of spongy bone unites the inner edges and external callus of cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges.
  91. Steps in repair of a fracture
    3
    The cartilage of the external callus has been replaced by bone and struts of spongy bone now unite the broken ends. Fragments of dead bone and the areas of bone closest to the break have been removed and replaced.
  92. Steps in repair of a fracture
    4
    A swelling initially marks the location of the fracture. over time, this region will be remodeled, and little evidence of the fracture will remain.
  93. General types of skeletal/Joint injuries
    joints, sprains, subluxations, dislocations, and fractures.
  94. Sprain
    Injury that stretches or tears one or more ligament within a joint
  95. Sprain
    Grade I
    • Minor or incomplete tear
    • Ligament is painful and tender but no laxity
    • swelling/ecchymossis minimal
    • joint is stable
  96. Sprain
    Grade II
    • Significant but incomplete tear
    • there is laxity, but an endpoint which no further opening of the joint occurs
    • swelling/ecchymosis moderate to severe
    • joint is unstable but intact
  97. Sprain
    Grade III
    • Complete tear/ total failure of ligaments involved. 
    • no endpoint is felt during exam
    • pain and muscle spasm can mask a grade III sprain.
  98. Subluxation
    • Partial dislocation
    • is a partial displacement of a bone end from its position withinn a joint capsule
  99. Dislocation
    • Is a complete displacement of bone ends from normal position within a joint.
    • Joint often fixes in an abnormal postion with noticeable deformiy.
    • this injury occurs when bones of the joint move beyond their normal range of motion with great force.
    • danger of entrapping,compressing or tearing blood vessels and nerves
  100. Fracture
    • Is an injury that interrupts the structural integrity of a bone
    • Either Traumatic or Pathological fracture(requires very little trauma
  101. Traumatic Fractures causes:
    • Direct blow
    • Angular(Bending forces)
    • Axial loading
    • Twisting (torque) stress
    • or any combo
  102. Pathologial fractures
    • lytic metastatic (cancerous) lesions,
    • fractures through benign bone cysts
    • vertebral compression fractures
  103. Salter-Harris System
    Classifies growth plate injuries
  104. Salter-Harris Type I
    • the fracture line runs through the physis. There is usually little, if any seperation of the epiphysis from the rest of the bone
    • least severe
  105. Salter-Harris Type II
    The entire epiphyss and a portion of the metaphysis are broken off. the fracture line runs through the physis and into the metaphysis
  106. Salter-Harris Type III
    Portion of the epiphysis is broken off. Tje fracture lime rums through the physis into the epiphysis, and the joint.
  107. Salter-Harris Type IV
    A portion of the epiphysis and portion of the metaphysis are borken off. The fracture lines through the metaphysis, physis, epiphysis and into the joint.
  108. Salter-Harris Type V
    The epiphyseal plate is compressed, usually through an axial loading type force. These injuries are difficult to diagnose and found retrospectively
  109. Fracture classifications
    in the field and xray
    • Open 
    • closed
    • Greenstick
    • torus
    • transverse 
    • oblique
    • spiral
    • comminuted
    • segmental
  110. open fracture
    through the skin
  111. Closed fracture
    not through the skin
  112. Greenstick fracture
    • almost exclusive to children
    • one side of the bone is broken and ther other side is bent.
  113. Torus fracture
    • almost exclusive
    • there is localized buckeling or swelling of the cortex
    • with little to no displace of the bone itself
  114. Transverse fracture
    a transverse fracture is a fracture line perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
  115. Oblique fracture
    the break extends obliquely to the long axis of the bone
  116. spiral fracture
    • also called torsion fracture
    • occurs when twisting force to a long bone
  117. communited fracture
    bone fractures with fragments in the fracture site
  118. segmental fracture
    Multiple fracture sites
  119. impacted fracture
    axial loading force is applied to the bone which drives the bone ends to fracture site together
  120. colles' fracture
    Fork forearm fracture
  121. Supracondylar fracture
    • fracture of the distal humerous just above the elbow
    • high complecation rate with nerve and vasculature
    • can fracture growth plate
  122. Hip Fracture classifications
    • Intracapsular
    • Extracapsular
  123. Intracapsular
    • Capital
    • subcapitol
    • transcervical
    • basicervical
  124. extracapsular
    • trochanteric
    • introchanteric
    • subtrochanteric
  125. Lefort I
    • limited to the macilla at the level of the nares
    • only the hard palate and upper mouth move with gentle palpation and mobilization
  126. Lefort II
    Triangulat fracture line extends across the ridge of the cheets into hte orbits of eyes
  127. Le fort III
    • the facial skeleton is separated from the skull
    • Crainial-facial dislocation
  128. Steps of fracture healing
    • Inflammatory
    • Reparative
    • Remodeling
  129. Osteopenia
    Inadequate ossification
  130. Osteoporosis
    Condition that produces a reduction in bone mass great enough to compromise normal function.
  131. bone markings/ surface features
    depressions and openings indicate sides where blood vessels and nerves run alongside or penetrate the bone.
  132. Skeletal system consists of
    • 206 separate bones
    • axial 
    • appendicular
  133. Axial Skeleton
    • Forms the longitudinal axis of the body
    • 80 bones
    • 22 bones of the skull, 7 assiciated bones (6 auditory ossicles and hyoid bone)
    • Thoracic cage- 24 ribs and sternum
    • 26 bones of the vertebral column
  134. Appendicular skeleton
    • 126 appendicular bones
    • 32 associated with each upper limb
    • 31 with each lower limb
    • Limbs 
    • pectoral/ pelvic girdles which attach the limbs to the trunk
  135. Surface features of bone/General/Anatomical/Description

    Elevations and projections

    Process
    Any projection or bump
  136. Surface features of bone/General/Anatomical/Description

    Elevations and projections

    Ramus
    Extension of a bone that makes an angle with the rest of the structure
  137. Surface features of bone/General/Anatomical/Description

    processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

    Trochanter
    Large, rough projection
  138. Surface features of bone/General/Anatomical/Description

    processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

    Tuberosity
    Smaller, rough projection
  139. Surface features of bone/General/Anatomical/Description

    processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

    Tubercle
    small, rounded projection
  140. Surface features of bone/General/Anatomical/Description

    processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

    crest
    prominent ridge
  141. Surface features of bone/General/Anatomical/Description

    processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

    line
    low ridge
  142. Surface features of bone/General/Anatomical/Description

    processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach

    spine
    pointed process
  143. Finish surface features
  144. Cranium encloses the
    Crainial cavity which is a fluid filled chamber that cushins and supports the brain
  145. Frontal bone
    forms the forehead and the roof of the orbits
  146. supraorbital foramen
    • is an opening the pierces the bony ridge abouve each orbit and forms a passageway for blood vessels and nerves passing to orfrom the eyebrows and eyelids
    • aka the supraorbital notch
  147. Frontal sinius
    make the cranium lighter and produce muscus that cleans and moistens the nasal cavities
  148. infraorbital foramen
    is an opening for a major sensory nerve from the face
  149. parietal bone
    is the posterior to the frontal bone. together the parietal bones form the roof and superior walls of the crainium
  150. True ribs
    7
  151. False ribs
    8-12 do not attach to sternum

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