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- 1. Crust-thin layer of continental and ocean crust
- 2. Mantle-made of rocky material/ hot partially molten material
- 3. Outer core-liquid mantle made of Iron and nickle, change in chemical make up
- 4. Inner core Solid, made out of iron and nickle, 600k temp of surface of sun
Continental crust vs. Ocean Crust
- 1. Continental - mostly made of granite
- 2. Ocean - basalt; rock that solidifies from molten state
P waves vs. S waves
- 1. P waves (pressure or primary)
- -sound waves
- -travel through water / liquid
- 2. S waves (secondary or shear)
- -waves like rope
What does it mean to say earth was differentiated?
- -The highest density materials are at the center and lowest density are at the surface
- -At some point, earth was molten
What heated surface of earth
- -radioactive elements heat earth from inside
- -planetestimals crashing into surface
- -The crust of earth is broken up into plates that slide over mantle -plate move 1-2 cm year
- -as fast as fingernails grow
Rifts and subduction zones
- Rift-place where two plates are pushed apart. This makes a new crust
- Subduction zone- place where one piece of crust in pushed under another
Earth's original atmosphere
- -H2O water vapor condensed to form..
- -Carbon dioxide liquid water oceans
Methane & Ammonia were broken apart by ultra violet light from the sun
Two things earth has that Venus and mars don't
How did CO2 get locked inside rocks on earth
- 1. Carbon dioxide dissolves in water
- 2. sea creatures with hard shells use CO2
- 3. Shells compress and become limestone
Average density of the moon
- 3.3v g/cm3 on a scale where water is 1 g/cm3like density of rock on earths surfaceearth is 5.5 g/cm3
Small or no iron core
Highlands vs. Maria
- 1. Highlands- light in color / heavily cratered / original crust of the moon
- 2. Maria- darker / smooth / lava came up
Brief history of the mon
- 1. 4.5 billion years ago the moon was formed and was completely molten. This solid crust over molten known as highlands
- 2. 4.3-3.9 heavy bombardment
- 3. 3.9-3.0 lava came up and made maria
Old theories of the moon
- 1. Sister theory-earth and moon formed together just as they are now
- 2. Fission theory-moon broke off from a rapidly rotating earth
- 3. capture theory-moon formed elsewhere and was captured my the earth
What is earth's sister planet?
Venus because they are the same size and mass
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mass
What do mercury and the moon have in common?
- 1. Completely cratered surface
- 2. Lack of atmosphere
Spin orbit coupling
Mercury rotates 3 times on its axis for every 2 orbits
How is rotation of mercury measured
bouncing radio waves from earth off the surface and measuring the reflected signals
It is both heavily surfaces and cratered
large impact basin that faces the sun at every perihelion
Why is mercury smooth?
Regions may be so hot they melted
- -long high cliffs created by carps
- -buckling as planet cooled and shrank
What is the principle gas in the atmosphere of venus?
95% carbon dioxide
How thick is Venus' atmosphere?
90 times thicker than earth's
Atmosphere of Mars
- very thin carbon dioxide
- pressure is 6/1000 of earths
Which terrestrial planet has the largest volcanic mountains
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Two most common atoms in Jupiter and Saturn
What do we believe the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn are like?
Layers of extremely dense gas with small rocky core at center
Belts and Zones
- Belts-regions of descending gas/ flow in one direction
- Zones-rising gas / blows in opposite directions
What planets give off more energy than they receive from the sun?
Jupiter and saturn
What planet is still cooling off from 4.5 billion years ago
What is happening to the helium on Saturn?
it is sinking into the center of the planet and creating the excess energy
What are the interiors or Uranus and Neptune like?
Thick and ice
What gas in Neptune's and Uranus' atmospheres make them appear blue?
What does Uranus look like?
Completely turquoise-green ball
What does Neptune look like?
Swirls of blue and green
What is unusual about the rotation of Uranus?
Retrograde. Axis of rotation is almost parallel to orbital plain.
Which of the four Jovial planets has the most extensive ring?